By S. Finley. Westminster Theological Seminary in California. 2018.
Opsonization is the tagging of a pathogen for phagocytosis by the binding of an antibody or an antimicrobial protein cheap 75 mg amitriptyline with mastercard. Complement System The complement system is a series of proteins constitutively found in the blood plasma discount amitriptyline 25 mg with visa. As such, these proteins are not considered part of the early induced immune response, even though they share features with some of the antibacterial proteins of this class. Made in the liver, they have a variety of functions in the innate immune response, using what is known as the “alternate pathway” of complement activation. Additionally, complement functions in the adaptive immune response as well, in what is called the classical pathway. The complement system consists of several proteins that enzymatically alter and fragment later proteins in a series, which is why it is termed cascade. Once activated, the series of reactions is irreversible, and releases fragments that have the following actions: • Bind to the cell membrane of the pathogen that activates it, labeling it for phagocytosis (opsonization) • Diffuse away from the pathogen and act as chemotactic agents to attract phagocytic cells to the site of inflammation • Form damaging pores in the plasma membrane of the pathogen Figure 21. In the alternate pathway, C3 is activated spontaneously and, after reacting with the molecules factor P, factor B, and factor D, splits apart. The larger fragment, C3b, binds to the surface of the pathogen and C3a, the smaller fragment, diffuses outward from the site of activation and attracts phagocytes to the site of infection. The classical pathway is similar, except the early stages of activation require the presence of antibody bound to antigen, and thus is dependent on the adaptive immune response. Phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils are attracted to an infection site by chemotactic attraction to smaller complement fragments. Additionally, once they arrive, their receptors for surface-bound C3b opsonize the pathogen for phagocytosis and destruction. Stub a toe, cut a finger, or do any activity that causes tissue damage and inflammation will result, with its four characteristics: heat, redness, pain, and swelling (“loss of function” is sometimes mentioned as a fifth characteristic). It is important to note that inflammation does not have to be initiated by an infection, but can also be caused by tissue injuries. The release of damaged cellular contents into the site of injury is enough to stimulate the response, even in the absence of breaks in physical barriers that would allow pathogens to enter (by hitting your thumb with a hammer, for example). The inflammatory reaction brings in phagocytic cells to the damaged area to clear cellular debris and to set the stage for wound repair (Figure 21. The process not only brings fluid and cells into the site to destroy the pathogen and remove it and debris from the site, but also helps to isolate the site, limiting the spread of the pathogen. If the cause of the inflammation is not resolved, however, it can lead to chronic inflammation, which is associated with major tissue destruction and fibrosis. It can be caused by foreign bodies, persistent pathogens, and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The released contents of injured cells stimulate the release of mast cell granules and their potent inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. Histamine increases the diameter of local blood vessels (vasodilation), causing an increase in blood flow. Histamine also increases the permeability of local capillaries, causing plasma to leak out and form interstitial fluid. Additionally, injured cells, phagocytes, and basophils are sources of inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Prostaglandins cause vasodilation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle and are a major cause of the pain associated with inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen relieve pain by inhibiting prostaglandin production. Many inflammatory mediators such as histamine are vasodilators that increase the diameters of local capillaries. At the same time, inflammatory mediators increase the permeability of the local vasculature, causing leakage of fluid into the interstitial space, resulting in the swelling, or edema, associated with inflammation. Leukotrienes are particularly good at attracting neutrophils from the blood to the site of infection by chemotaxis. Following an early neutrophil infiltrate stimulated by macrophage cytokines, more macrophages are recruited to clean up the debris left over at the site. When local infections are severe, neutrophils are attracted to the sites of infections in large numbers, and as they phagocytose the pathogens and subsequently die, their 996 Chapter 21 | The Lymphatic and Immune System accumulated cellular remains are visible as pus at the infection site. Not only are the pathogens killed and debris removed, but the increase in vascular permeability encourages the entry of clotting factors, the first step towards wound repair. Inflammation also facilitates the transport of antigen to lymph nodes by dendritic cells for the development of the adaptive immune response. However, they slow pathogen growth and allow time for the adaptive immune response to strengthen and either control or eliminate the pathogen.
You will see that suddenly discount amitriptyline 25 mg on line, a table is spread over two pages order 10 mg amitriptyline fast delivery; a new chapter doesn’t begin at the top of the page, but for some inexplicable reason has slipped back onto the previous page; yes, you will even notice some spelling mistakes. And, you should take this final opportunity before the printing process to check the dosage details one last time. You can still be reproached in 20 years for something that is written down in black and white – and there is nothing more dramatic than incorrect dosage details for medications. To this end, you need software by the name of “Acrobat Distiller” – I am sure one of your colleagues will be able to help you out here. In addition, the print quality can be improved with certain pre-adjustments in Acrobat-Distiller. Good word-of-mouth advertising is better than any book review – reviews are forgotten faster than small flies die, while word of mouth continues publishing for the whole year. If you are better than the competition you can do the same as Google and not spend any money on advertising or marketing. All the same: even homespun advertising can speed up the kick-off of a project, and a bit of ballyhoo can help you get off your marks all the faster. Grant yourself the luxury of offering your students the book for half-price at a class or lecture. You should also start a new folder with the heading “2nd Edition”, where you can collect the ideas and thoughts which your readers will enjoy next year. Marketing There are three distribution channels for medical textbooks: bookstores, direct shipping to the reader and the sale of part editions to foundations or pharmaceutical companies. This would be a tragedy if we wanted to market poems or fiction, but fortunately we are producing medical textbooks, 90% of which are sold in specialist bookstores. This means that to cover the market as broadly as possible, it is sufficient to place your books in the 20 to 50 most important medical bookstores in your country. If you are asked about your terms and conditions, offer them 40% discount for the first order, 30% for subsequent orders. At a retail price of 40 Euro, for example, you could offer a base price of 28 Euro and reduce it to 25 Euro if 10 or more books are taken (with price increments according to country if shipping abroad). Direct shipment of books to the readers The direct shipment of books to the readers is the most troublesome distribution channel. In the case of domestic shipment, you should charge the normal retail price; for shipment abroad add 2 or 3 Euro for additional postage and packaging, because you have to cover these extra costs. In the case of direct ordering from the above address, the mailing costs are included in the price. The home stretch Foundations or pharmaceutical companies Both foundations and pharmaceutical companies can be considered as possible sponsors for your book. Medical textbooks are of interest for pharmaceutical companies if their products are assessed positively. As we mentioned earlier, this cannot be used as an excuse to practise fair- weather journalism along the lines of: I give your product a positive assessment and you buy my books (see the section “Leprosy”, Page 54). Less harmful, but a lot more embarrassing, are attitudes such as “well, you know I can just as well use the products of your competitors” in order to get rid of your own books. The number of books which a pharmaceutical company can buy up ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand – depending on the subject and the involvement of the company in the field about which you are writing. Ora et labora The time has come: you are holding the first copy of the book in your hands. What do you do in the meantime, as long as you don’t know what will become of your baby? It is best to carry on tinkering: pocket version, upgrading the website, removal of the copyright and – why not? Student You cannot own every book in which you want to read one chapter or another. The home stretch Bystander What is written in this book about medical textbooks can theoretically be applied to all texts: you can make them into a book and publish them free of charge on the internet at the same time. Whatever you do, the internet version provides cheap and effective advertising for the book version. But do not forget that the marketing of non-medical texts can be more difficult than is described here. Also, your target group may be more broadly scattered and 20 to 50 specialist bookstores – as in medicine – are not enough to organise distribution. Playground, creativity Pocket edition – Expansion of the website – Payment of authors’ fees – English edition – Removal of copyright – Blogs Pocket edition Medical textbooks are often heavy and unwieldy, because they soon consist of 500 to 800 pages. Everything in these books is important, but some chapters are more important for day-to-day practice than others. The advantages of pocket versions: The shortened version isn’t left on the bookshelf but is kept – as its name suggests – in the doctor’s coat pocket, where it is consulted frequently.
Of those who initiated boceprevir discount 25mg amitriptyline overnight delivery, 89% got to 8 weeks 25 mg amitriptyline fast delivery, 81% to 12 weeks, 76% to 16 weeks, and 29% to 32 weeks. The medication possession ratio indicated that most patients were highly adherent and that those who continued in treatment flled prescriptions promptly. What will be the health impacts of using either of two available directly acting antivirals combined with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (triple therapy)? This comparison was made for three potential uptake rates: the current uptake rate (two percent per year), a doubled uptake rate (four percent per year), and a quadrupled uptake rate (eight percent per year). When compared to standard therapy, universal triple therapy was likely to reduce annual cases of decompensated cirrhosis by 10-29 (current uptake: 10; doubled uptake: 29; quadrupled uptake: 50). When comparing universal triple therapy to standard therapy, annual cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were likely to be reduced by 5-16 (current: 5; doubled: 16; quadrupled: 27). Finally, when comparing universal triple therapy to standard therapy, annual numbers of liver transplants are likely to be reduced by 0-1 (current: 0; doubled: 1; quadrupled: 2). This comparison was made for the same three potential uptake rates: the current uptake rate (two percent per year), a doubled uptake rate (four percent per year), and a quadrupled uptake rate (eight percent per year). In these comparisons, annual cases of decompensated cirrhosis are likely to be reduced by 8-26 (current uptake: 8; doubled uptake: 26; quadrupled uptake: 45), annual cases of hepatocellular carcinoma are likely to be reduced by 4-14 (current: 4; doubled: 14; quadrupled: 25), and annual numbers of liver transplants are likely to be reduced by 0-1 (current: 0; doubled: 1; quadrupled: 2). Table 9 below shows the details about these annual net expenditures vary depending on strategy and scenario. The costs include the direct cost of the new medications, the cost of treating side effects, as well as averted costs of advanced liver disease and lower care costs after achieving sustained virologic response. Importantly, average annual net costs, health outcomes and quality-of-life presented in these analyses should not be used for cost-effectiveness calculations as averted costs and downstream health benefts past year 5 are not counted in the 5-year projection of the effect on health care cost. Of those who initiated boceprevir, 89% got to 8 weeks, 81% to 12 weeks, 76% to 16 weeks, and 29% to 32 weeks. Key Question #2: What will be the health impacts of using either of two available directly acting antivirals combined with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (triple therapy)? When compared to standard therapy, universal triple therapy was likely to reduce annual cases of decompensated cirrhosis by 10-29 (current uptake: 10; doubled uptake: 29; quadrupled uptake: 50). When comparing universal triple therapy to standard therapy, annual cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were likely to be reduced by 5-16 (current: 5; doubled: 16; quadrupled: 27). Finally, when comparing universal triple therapy to standard therapy, annual numbers of liver transplants are likely to be reduced by 0-1 (current: 0; doubled: 1; quadrupled: 2). Laboratory data can be used to estimate the stage of their fbrosis and may provide more accurate information on the distribution of fbrosis in future studies. Ultimately, all such approaches attempt to optimize over treatment response, side-effects, and costs in achieving best outcomes for individual patients. Newer therapies and technologies are in clinical trials and could potentially represent even more attractive options for clinicians and Veterans, and may supplant the treatments we considered. Conversely physician education or other diffusion of information processes could increase uptake rates over time. Our model-based analyses indicate that use of triple therapy results in better outcomes than standard therapy, but at increased costs. Can we predict the degree of fbrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients using routine blood tests in our daily practice? Utilization of Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Hepatitis C Virus – Infected Veterans in the United States. Risk factors for hepatitis C fbrosis: a prospective study of United States veterans compared with nonveterans. Importance of patient, provider, and facility predictors of hepatitis C virus treatment in veterans: a national study. A descriptive evaluation of eligibility for therapy among veterans with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Psychosocial factors are the most common contraindications for antiviral therapy at initial evaluation in veterans with chronic hepatitis C. Sustained virologic response among Latino veterans; does it represent the cure of chronic hepatitis C infection? Combination therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C in the veteran population: higher than expected rates of therapy discontinuation. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma among veterans with hepatitis C on disease stage, treatment received, and survival. Predictors of early treatment discontinuation among patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C and implications for viral eradication. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Infuence of psychiatric diagnoses on interferon- alpha treatment for chronic hepatitis C in a veteran population. A Prospective Study of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Associated With Interferon-α-2b and Ribavirin Therapy for Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C.
This is composed of mainly phospholipids from the membranes of the tissue plus a lipoprotein complex amitriptyline 10 mg mastercard. Figure 42: Stages of blood coagulation 136 (c) Effect of activated factor X (Xa) to form prothrombin activator The factor Xa combines immediately with tissue phospholipids that are part of tissue factor or combine with factor V to form the complex called prothrombin activator discount amitriptyline 25 mg on line. That is, activated factor X combines with factor V and platelet/tissue phospholipids to form the complex called prothrombin activator. Prothrombin is enzymatically split into two 137 fragments: one inert and the other possessing the properties of thrombin. Initially the conversion of prothrombin proceeds too slowly to produce significant amounts of thrombin needed for coagulation. Thrombin itself, however, increases its own rate of formation by converting proaccelerin (factor V) into accelerin which then accelerates the formation of thrombin. The clot is composed of a meshwork of fibrin fibers running in all directions and entrapping blood cells, platelets and plasma proteins. Excessive bleeding Excessive bleeding can result from deficiency of any of the many blood-clotting factors. With few exceptions, almost all the blood clotting factors are formed by the liver. Therefore, diseases of the liver such as hepatitis, and cirrhosis can sometimes depress the clotting system. In absence of vitamin-K, subsequent insufficiency of these coagulation factors in the blood can lead to serious bleeding tendencies. Symptoms Hemophilia is characterized by spontaneous or traumatic subcutaneous hemorrhage, blood in urine, and bleeding in the mouth, lips, tongue, and within the joints. A platelet count of 100,000/cu mm or less is generally considered to constitute thrombocytopenia, although the bleeding tendency does not become evident until the count falls below 40,000/cu mm. The drop in platelets may occur because of either of the following reasons: (2) Thromboembolic conditions The pathologic converse to hemostasis is called thrombosis. Thrombosis can be thought of as the formation of blood clot (thrombus) in uninjured vessels, or thrombotic occlusion of a vessel after relatively minor injury. Like hemostatic mechanism, thrombosis also depends on three general components: the vascular wall, platelets, and the coagulation cascade. It is particularly important in thrombus formation in the heart and arterial circulation, for example, within the cardiac chambers when there has been endocardial injury (e. It is important to note that endothelium does not need to be denuded or physically disrupted to contribute to the development of thrombosis; any perturbation in the dynamic balance of prothrombotic and antithrombotic effects can influence local clotting events. Thus, significant endothelial dysfunction may occur from the hemodynamic stresses of hypertension, or bacterial endotoxins. Normal blood flow is laminar such that the platelets elements flow centrally in the vessel lumen separated from the endothelium by a slower-moving clear zone of plasma. Stasis and turbulence therefore: (a) Disrupt laminar flow and bring platelets into contact with the endothelium (b) Prevent dilution of activated clotting factors by fresh-flowing blood (c) Retard the inflow of clotting inhibitors and permit the build-up of thrombi (d) Promote endothelial cell activation. It is loosely defined as any alteration of the coagulation pathways that predisposes thrombosis, and it can be divided into primary (genetic) and secondary (acquired) disorders. The characteristic alteration is a mutant factor Va that cannot be inactivated by protein C; as a result, an important antithrombotic counter-regulatory pathway is lost. Use of oral contraceptives and the hyperestrogenic state of pregnancy are some common examples of this category. The systemic circulation, which supplies all the tissues, is a high-resistance system with a large pressure difference between the arteries and veins. The arteries are highly elastic and muscular; they distribute blood to the smaller arterioles and ultimately to the network of capillaries, where exchange of fluid, small molecules and nutrients occurs across the thin walls. Human heart is a four chambered pump, well adapted to separation of oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood handled by left and the right side of the heart respectively. Thin wall atria receive blood, which reaches into thick-walled ventricles that pump blood into systemic and pulmonary circuits through great vessels. The pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, low-resistance system handling the same amount of blood at the same time as systemic circulation to keep the same amount of blood in the right and left side of the heart. The left ventricle is more muscular and heavier than the right ventricle, which pumps against the low resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the left pumps against the high resistance of the systemic circulation. The mean systemic arterial pressure is 90-100 mmHg, whereas the mean pulmonary pressure is only 8 to 24 mm Hg. The low arterial pulmonary pressure eliminates the need for much supporting tissue in the lungs so that it can have millions of thin- walled 141 alveoli. And highly specialized pulmonary capillaries, facilitating the rapid exchange of gases between the blood and alveolar air. Functional anatomy of the heart The adult heart is enclosed in a double walled sac, the pericardium that attaches it to the mediastinum. The apex is rounded and formed by the left ventricle and located behind the sixth rib, about 3 inches to the left of the midline of the body.
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