By I. Chris. Washington State University. 2018.
Several patches reached the market (such as Nicotrol discount 100 mg amantadine, Nicoderm buy amantadine 100 mg overnight delivery, Prostep and Habitrol) representing examples of each of the basic system designs, and all of which are pharmacokinetically bioequivalent. There are differences, though, in the degree of irritation induced by the different patches and this seems to be related to the relative thermodynamic activity of nicotine in the different systems. Drug loading also varies appreciably between the different patches, as does the efficiency of drug usage. Short- term efficacy has been established by showing that the use of the patches reduces tobacco withdrawal symptoms and increases abstinence. Longer-term studies reveal that the patches can be effective but require supplemental pyschological and motivational aid and counseling to minimize the chances that a subject returns to smoking. Recently, in many countries, nicotine patches have become available “over the counter” without a prescription. Testosterone These patches (Testoderm, Testoderm with Adhesive, and Androderm) are approved for the treatment of hormonal insufficiency in diseases such as primary hypogonadism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The systems are applied daily to mimic the endogenous profile of serum testosterone in the normal male. Testoderm (4 mg and 6 mg) and Testoderm with Adhesive (6 mg) release controlled amounts of testosterone upon daily application to scrotal skin. These systems have contact areas of 40 or 60 cm, and2 contain 10 and 15 mg of testosterone, respectively. The matrix system, Androderm, also provides continuous delivery of testosterone for 24 hours, but is applied to non-scrotal skin. Permeation enhancers are essential for this patch to ensure the efficient delivery of drug through skin sites which are less permeable than scrotal skin. The Androderm systems have a central drug delivery reservoir surrounded by a peripheral adhesive and are available in doses of 2. These testosterone systems illustrate two different approaches to solve the problem of inadequate percutaneous absorption rate. In the former case, the patch must be applied to the body’s most permeable skin site, the scrotum (which has been shown to be at least five times more permeable than any other site). In the latter, the difficulty is resolved by creating a transdermal formulation which includes excipients to reduce barrier function. Neither solution is ideal: scrotal application is clearly not preferred from a patient compliance standpoint; on the other hand, permeation enhancers, by their very nature, tend to be irritating (and the more effective they are, the greater the irritation they provoke). This general problem, which presently limits the application of transdermal delivery, is now discussed in more detail. The effective steady-state concentration of the drug is Css (mg cm−3) and its systemic clearance is Cl (cm hr3 −1). Ideally, A is relatively small (say 50 cm or less) and k is determined by the device and is less2 o than the maximum drug flux (Jmax) possible across intact stratum corneum. Their clearance values and target steady-state plasma concentrations have been taken from the literature, and it has been assumed that, for each compound, a steady-state delivery rate (k ) intoo the body of 25 µg cm−2 hr−1 can be achieved. Of course, for many compounds, such a high flux (which is typical only for such rapidly permeating drugs as nitroglycerin and nicotine) is completely unrealistic. As can be seen by the resulting estimations of the minimum patch area (Amin) necessary to arrive at the target blood concentration (determined using Equations 8. Consequently, considerable effort is being directed at approaches to increase Jmax, i. Possibilities include: 209 • increasing the amount of drug in the vehicle and hence increasing the total delivered dose from a single application (but this does not necessarily mean that the rate of absorption is enhanced); • increasing drug solubility in the stratum corneum, i. It should: • elicit no pharmacological effect; • be specific in its action; • act quickly, with a predictable duration, and its action should be reversible; • be chemically and physically stable, and be compatible with all components of the drug delivery system; • be odorless and colorless; • be non-toxic, non-allergenic and non-irritating. It remains to be seen to what extent the limitations can be relaxed for a chemical promoter to be acceptable (to patients and to the regulatory authorities). Enhancers include a wide range of chemical entities that increase skin permeability (Figure 8. Outstanding issues which need to be resolved include questions about the mechanism of action of the different enhancers in use at present, and the reversibility of their effects in vivo. Regulatory approval within the United States for an enhancer known as Azone proved to be extremely difficult because, as a new chemical developed specifically for skin permeation enhancement, it was subjected to an examination almost as detailed as that customary for a new therapeutic agent. Needless to say, this is an expensive path to follow for what is essentially a low-concentration excipient in a formulation and, as a result, the strategy now is to identify already-known and in-use materials (or combinations thereof) which have enhancing capabilities. These “generally regarded as safe” components offer a much easier regulatory path than that reserved for a new chemical entity. Practically speaking, the potential difference across the skin provides a force in addition to the passive flow of solute induced by the concentration gradient (Figure 8. The isoelectric point of human skin is around pH 4 which implies that skin, under normal physiological conditions, supports a net negative charge. Hence, the skin is permselective to the passage of positive ions and, as a result, more momentum is transferred to the solvent in the direction of cation flow.
Remember cheap 100mg amantadine visa, that you can always review an emotional event later effective amantadine 100 mg, when there’s some time and privacy to have a dialogue. As you become more at ease and familiar with the process of dialoguing, you’ll be able to use a shortened version of the dialogue, or even just a part of it, in the moment that an emotional or stressful event is occurring. Empathy for the Inner Child• 205 Here are the components of the shortened/summary dialogue: 1. Actions on behalf of the child Awareness Initially, describe to yourself, as objectively as you can, the stressful event that has occurred or that’s currently unfolding. This is a good way to frame the rest of the conversation that you’ll have with your inner child. After describing the event as it initially presented itself, acknowledge the child’s reaction to it. Coming back to the example of when Larry bought the suit, Larry would have described the initial event and his inner child’s reaction by saying: My dear child, you bought a suit that you think is too expensive. Mika, in her situation, would have started with: My dear child, you didn’t bring the right file in and you’re worried that you’re not doing your job. Acknowledge the Feeling Step two is to acknowledge what emotion the inner child is feeling. Through your usual inner-child dialogue practice, you’ll have a much quicker sense of what the inner child’s core feeling is, in a given situation. If you don’t have a sense of what the child is feeling, you can directly question the child and ask how it’s feeling in the moment. This repetition is an acknowledgement that you know and understand what the child is feeling. If you were to discount, or minimize, the child’s feelings by saying, “You’re not sad. Everything’s good,” the child would again be in a place wherein a dismissal of its feelings renders it powerless and invisible. In Larry’s situation he would have said to his inner child: It sounds like you’re feeling scared and angry. Mika would have made the comment: It sounds like you’re feeling really nervous and worried. Stating the Belief System Your next step is to focus on the inner child’s belief system. Bringing the underlying belief into the open, instead of leaving it where it normally hides beneath your conscious awareness, will start to shed some light on what the motivating force is for your actions. State to your inner child what you think the child believes that is underlying its feelings and reactions. This isn’t just a belief about a current stressful situation but a general core belief that you’ve run into before in your inner-child dialogues. Stating the core belief from the belief system, that’s at work during a stress-reaction, will give you some additional clarity and a place to focus your attention in order to create change. For this third step Larry might have said something like: You believe that if you make any mistake you will not be loved. In this step, you provide an alternate view of the belief system for the inner child. Remember, that looking at something in a different way is the beginning of the reframing process. Through your inner-child dialogues, you have discovered the inner child’s belief system and from that discovery you are able to provide a more constructive way for the inner child to experience life. This reframing step is where you say something to the inner child that really challenges its beliefs. Mika could have said: My dear child, everyone is responsible for his or her own feelings. The child comes from a place of powerlessness and knowing that there are solutions to the perceived problem at hand is also reassuring. Additionally, if the child has said that it needs something in particular in order to feel reassured, the adult in you can specifically tailor some supportive statements to address those needs. Reframe or challenge the child’s beliefs by offering a different, more constructive way of looking at things. Tell the child what actions you will take to meet the child’s needs, and if possible, what actions you’ll take to fix the current problem. Putting it all together, Larry would have said something like: My dear child, you bought a suit that you think is too expensive. Mika might have had a shortened, inner-child dialogue that sounded something like: My dear child you didn’t bring the right work file in and you’re worried that you’re not doing your job.
If a patient has a pheochromocytoma generic 100mg amantadine with amex, the circulating levels fail to suppress after 3 hours purchase amantadine 100mg with visa. Vascular Etiology Renal Artery Stenosis Duplex scanning usually is the ﬁrst test used to screen for renal artery stenosis. Obtaining renal vein samples for renin levels quantitates the physio- logic signiﬁcance of the stenosis to the speciﬁc kidney. The sensitivity of renal vein renin sampling is increased by the administration of captopril prior to venous blood sampling. Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta usually is diagnosed in early childhood and is associated with more complex cardiac anomalies. Either angiogra- phy or echocardiography can conﬁrm its presence in the neonatal population. In middle-aged adults and older patients, serious consid- eration should be given to angiography to evaluate a coarctation and to rule out concomitant coronary artery disease. Case Discussion The urinary catecholamines and metanephrines are grossly positive. The number of classes of medications, types within each class, and dosing regimens are among the most numerous of any type of medication. All types of hypertension are treated with an antihyper- tensive medication (Table 18. Endocrine Etiology Conn’s Disease Treatment of Conn’s disease depends on whether it is caused by an adrenal adenoma or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Once chemically characterized and localized by radiologic studies, these tumors can be treated successfully either by laparoscopic excision (primarily left- sided tumors) or open surgical technique. Cushing’s Disease Cushing’s disease can be treated by transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary gland. Treatment of cortisol secreting adrenal tumors is similar to that for Conn’s disease: laparoscopic excision or open sur- gical excision. Pheochromocytoma Pheochromocytoma is treated by surgical extirpation, either open or laparoscopic. Preoperative treatment with alpha- and beta-blockade is necessary prior to surgery to diminish the state of increased vascular tone. Furthermore, the anesthesiologist must be ready to deal with extremely labile blood pressure using intravenous vasodilators and vasopressors. Vascular Etiology Renal Artery Stenosis Renovascular hypertension may be treated surgically in patients who are good candidates. A stenosis in the renal artery can be bypassed with either saphenous vein or prosthetic graft. More recently, percu- taneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stenting have become safe and less invasive methods of treatment. Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation in neonates usually is repaired at the time of surgery for other cardiac anomalies. Various surgical techniques exist, includ- ing resection with end-to-end anastomosis, resection with tube graft interposition, subclavian artery ﬂap repair, and patch angioplasty. Signiﬁcant problems have arisen from balloon angioplasty of native aortic coarctation. These include aneurysm formation, increased risk of paraplegia following open repair for “failed” angioplasty, and a high rate of restenosis. However, balloon angioplasty is useful for recur- rent stenosis following open repair (5–10%). Case Discussion Your patient with the pheochromocytoma gets medically alpha blocked and then undergoes a successful laparoscopic excision of the tumor. Summary Hypertension is an extremely morbid condition affecting tens of mil- lions of individuals in the United States. Treatment of these patients is an ongoing process that requires close follow-up and fre- quent adjustments in medications and risk-factor management. A very small percentage of individuals afﬂicted with hypertension may be amenable to a surgical cure. This chapter outlined surgical causes of hypertension and their pre- sentation, workup, and treatment. The underlying tenet in the diagno- sis and treatment of surgical hypertension includes a complete history, a complete physical exam, and a high index of suspicion on the part of the clinician. After clinical presentation and suspicion suggest a par- ticular etiology, the clinician has a variety of biochemical and radio- 334 L. Rather, they should be used selectively, when a reasonable chance of identifying a surgical etiology exists. Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (ﬁfth report). Imaging of aldosterone secreting adenomas: a prospective comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in 27 patients with suspected primary aldosteronism.
Two anatomical meth- anatomists use an imaginary flat surface called a ods are used to divide this area of the body for plane discount amantadine 100mg with amex. The most commonly used planes are mid- medical purposes: sagittal (median) discount 100 mg amantadine amex, coronal (frontal), and trans- verse (horizontal). Current imaging a means of locating specific sites for descriptive procedures, such as magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostic purposes. Pain, lesions, abrasions, Spine punctures, and burns are commonly described as The spine is divided into sections corresponding to located in a specific quadrant. These also identified by using body quadrants as the divisions are: method of location. For example, the stomach is located in the left example, the kidneys are superior to the urinary hypochondriac and epigastric region; the appen- bladder. The directional phrase superior to denotes dix is located in the hypogastric region. Table 4-2 Body Cavities This table lists the body cavities and some of the major organs found within them. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by a muscular wall called the diaphragm. Cavity Major Organ(s) in the Cavity Dorsal Cranial Brain Spinal Spinal cord Ventral Thoracic Heart, lungs, and associated structures Abdominopelvic Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures Table 4-3 Body Quadrants This table lists the quadrants of the body, their corresponding abbreviations, and their major structures. Right Left hypochondriac Epigastric hypochondriac region region region Right upper Left upper quadrant quadrant Right lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar region region region Right lower Left lower quadrant quadrant Right inguinal Hypogastric Left inguinal (iliac) region region (iliac) region Figure 4-4. Table 4-4 Abdominopelvic Regions This table lists the names of the abdominopelvic regions and their location. Region Location Left hypochondriac Upper left region beneath the ribs Epigastric Region above the stomach Right hypochondriac Upper right region beneath the ribs Left lumbar Left middle lateral region Umbilical Region of the navel Right lumbar Right middle lateral region Left inguinal (iliac) Left lower lateral region Hypogastric Lower middle region beneath the navel Right inguinal (iliac) Right lower lateral region It is time to review the planes of the body and quadrants and regions of the abdominopelvic area by completing Learning Activities 4–1 and 4–2. Table 4-5 Directional Terms This table lists directional terms along with their definitions. Term Definition Abduction Movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts Adduction Movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body Directional Terms 47 Table 4-5 Directional Terms—cont’d Term Definition Medial Pertaining to the midline of the body or structure Lateral Pertaining to a side Superior (cephalad) Toward the head or upper portion of a structure Inferior (caudal) Away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure Proximal Nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body Distal Further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body Anterior (ventral) Front of the body Posterior (dorsal) Back of the body Parietal Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity Visceral Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs Prone Lying on the abdomen, face down Supine Lying horizontally on the back, face up Inversion Turning inward or inside out Eversion Turning outward Palmar Pertaining to the palm of the hand Plantar Pertaining to the sole of the foot Superficial Toward the surface of the body (external) Deep Away from the surface of the body (internal) It is time to review body cavity, spine, and directional terms by completing Learning Activity 4–3. Medical Word Elements This section introduces combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes related to body structure. Thus, the individual with heterochromia may have one brown iris and one blue iris. Cirrhosis of the liver is usually associated with alcoholism or chronic hepatitis. Pathology 53 Pathology diseases include: • metabolic (such as diabetes) All body cells require oxygen and nutrients for sur- • infectious (such as measles and mumps) vival. They also need a stable internal environment • congenital (such as cleft lip) that provides a narrow range of temperature, water, • hereditary (such as hemophilia) acidity, and salt concentration. This stable internal • environmental (such as burns and trauma) environment is called homeostasis. When home- • neoplastic (such as cancer) ostasis is disrupted and cells, tissues, organs, or sys- tems are unable to function effectively, the condition Establishing the cause and nature of a disease is is called disease. Determining a diagnosis ease is a pathological or morbid condition that helps in the selection of a treatment. A prognosis is presents a group of signs, symptoms, and clinical the prediction of the course of a disease and its findings. A symptom is subjective and is A variety of diagnostic procedures are used to experienced only by the patient. Dizziness, pain, and identify diseases and determine their extent or malaise are examples of symptoms. Diagnostic tests can be simple, such as are the results of radiologic, laboratory, and other listening to chest sounds with a stethoscope, or medical procedures performed on the patient or complex, such as a biopsy. Abbreviations Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms This section introduces diagnostic, symptomatic, and related terms and their meanings. Descriptions are provided as well as pro- nunciations and word analyses for selected terms. The endoscope is usually named for the organ, cavity, or canal being exam- ined, such as gastroscope and sigmoidoscope. Rather than being directed into the body, radiation comes from inside the body and is then detected by a specialized camera to produce an image. It is especially useful to visu- -graphy: process of recording alize blood flow through arteries and veins in the brain. A computer analyzes the reflected echoes and converts them into an image on a video monitor.
Te clinical symptoms and laboratory results are donate not characteristic of Lyme disease Immunology/Correlate laboratory data with C cheap amantadine 100mg line. Te patient likely has an early infection with physiological processes/Hepatitis/Testing/3 hepatitis B virus D purchase 100mg amantadine overnight delivery. Laboratory error has caused a false-negative result Answers to Questions 8–11 Immunology/Correlate laboratory data with physiological processes/Lyme testing/Testing/3 8. A 19-year-old girl came to her physician antibody test should be followed by a test such as complaining of a sore throat and fatigue. Regardless of physical examination, lymphadenopathy was the test outcome, if the physician suspects Lyme noted. Waiting 1 or 2 weeks and physiological processes/Testing/3 repeating the tests may reveal evidence of hepatitis virus infection. The response was seen by his physician and exhibited mild to hepatitis B vaccine would include a positive result jaundice and slightly elevated liver enzymes. Check blood bank donor records and contact donor(s) of transfused units Immunology/Correlate laboratory data with physiological processes/Hepatitis/Testing/3 116 Chapter 3 | Immunology 12. A pregnant woman came to her physician with a Answers to Questions 12–14 maculopapular rash on her face and neck. B A ﬁnding of IgG is not deﬁnitive for congenital rubella both IgG and IgM antibody were positive. What syndrome because IgG crosses the placenta from the positive test(s) would reveal a diagnosis of mother; however, demonstration of IgM, even in a congenital rubella syndrome in her baby after single neonatal sample, is diagnostic. Positive rubella tests for both IgG and IgM detects antibodies to mycoplasmal membrane antibody antigens and, unlike cold agglutinins, is speciﬁc for B. Positive rubella test for IgG higher) occurs during the acute phase in about 87% D. C When monitoring the level of a tumor marker for is repeated 3 weeks later, and the titer remains at treatment eﬃcacy or recurrence, the half-life of the 1:32. The hook eﬀect is the titer was not accompanied by a positive test for result of very high antigen levels giving a lower than cold agglutinins expected result in a double antibody sandwich assay C. Rheumatoid factor caused a false-positive test when both antibodies and sample are added at the result same time. Insuﬃcient time had elapsed between measurement of acute and convalescent samples Immunology/Apply knowledge to recognize sources of error/IgM testing/3 14. A patient has a prostate-speciﬁc antigen level of 60 ng/mL the day before surgery to remove a localized prostate tumor. Te cell line displayed a mixed pattern display symptoms that overlap two or more diseases of ﬂuorescence that could not be separated by and have complex mixtures of serum autoantibodies. It prevents graft-versus-host disease present initially with a negative serum result. B The main advantage to the patient from the biological characteristics/Transplantation/2 reinfusion of autologous stem cells is that the procedure prevents graft-versus-host disease, 18. A transplant patient began to show signs of especially in the immunocompromised patient. Preformed antibody, and possibly immune response/Transplantation/Rejection/3 complement, is usually involved in hyperacute (immediate) rejection and chronic rejection. Greatest sensitivity in monitoring for What is the most likely explanation of these ﬁndings? Ovarian malignancy has recurred to be increased in the malignant tissue type are B. Although testing errors may occur in any situation, measurements of carbohydrate Immunology/Correlate laboratory data with antigens use puriﬁed monoclonal antibodies with physiological processes/Tumor markers/Testing/3 very low cross reactivities. Based upon these is considered positive only if antibodies to at least results, which conclusion is correct? A woman who has been pregnant for 12 weeks is should be reported as indeterminate, and the patient tested for toxoplasmosis. Which of the following IgM may remain detectable for a year or more tests would you recommend to determine if the following infection. Amniotic ﬂuid culture not useful for determining when the mother might Immunology/Correlate laboratory data with have been infected. The courier placed the whole technologists who performed the tests blood specimen in an ice chest for transport. Order a new lot of both kits and then retest on this specimen, no β-γ band is seen in the serum the new lots protein lane, and the IgM lane is very faint. Refer the discrepant specimens for testing by rheumatoid factor on this specimen was negative. Nothing’s wrong with our laboratory; the patient had an infection 2 weeks ago that has cleared up Answers to Questions 22–24 B. Something’s wrong with our laboratory—we likely mislabeled one of the specimens; please 22.
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