By X. Yussuf. John F. Kennedy University. 2018.
It should be noted however that patients with inﬂamma- tory bowel disease might present in this way discount eurax 20gm fast delivery. Organic Dysphagia disease is suggested by a history of diarrhoea of less than Dysphagia or difﬁculty in swallowing usually indicates 3months duration order 20 gm eurax overnight delivery, continuous or nocturnal diarrhoea, organic disease. The history should establish duration, the steatorrhoea (stool that is frothy, foul smelling and ﬂoats constant or intermittent nature, and whether it is worse because of a high fat content). If solids are affected more than History taking in chronic diarrhoea should include liquids, the cause is more likely to be obstruction, the following: whereas liquids are affected more in neurological dis- r Previous gastrointestinal surgery. Odynophagia that occurs with liquids suggests up- r Anycoexistent pancreatic, endocrine or multisystem peroesophageal ulceration. Chapter 4: Clinical 141 r Family history of gastrointestinal neoplasia, inﬂam- hypokalaemia) and neurological diseases (spinal cord matory bowel disease or coeliac disease. Associated symptoms In young patients (under 45 years) with symptoms r Constipation may cause colicky abdominal pains due suggestive of functional bowel disease, a normal exam- to peristalsis. This is common and not necessarily due ination and negative screening tests, no further investi- to aserious underlying disease. If atypical ﬁndings are present, a r Pain on passage of stool due to anorectal disease may sigmoidoscopy should be performed. In older patients lead to a deliberate suppression of the urge to defe- colonoscopy with ileoscopy should be performed with cate and therefore the accumulation of large, dry, hard biopsy and histological examination of any suspicious stools and constipation. Alternating It is important to determine if the bleeding is fresh bright constipation and diarrhoea, often with bloating, pas- red or dark,andwhetheritisonthesurfaceofthestoolor sage of mucus, and abdominal pains that are relieved mixed in. Bright red blood on the toilet paper after wip- by defecation, is commonly due to a functional bowel ing is usually due to haemorrhoids. However, it is im- in with the stool, or associated with various abdominal portant to exclude malignancy if patients are over 45 symptoms, other pathology should be sought, in partic- years or there are any suspicious features. Rectal blood with other conditions including depression and any ma- may occur with infection or inﬂammation of the bowel lignancy. It is important to consider gastrointestinal ma- together with weight loss, this suggests either malab- lignancy in any case of rectal bleeding. The history should establish the du- Constipation ration and severity of weight loss. Hard, dif- The acute abdomen introduction ﬁculttopassstoolsarealsoconsideredconstipation,even if frequent. The patient is often generally unwell and may be shocked due to dehydration and loss of ﬂuid into extravascular Management spaces such as the lumen of the bowel and the abdominal Patients may require resuscitation, and general manage- cavity. Investigations r If shocked, a ﬂuid balance chart should be started and r Full blood count (often normal, but leucocytosis may where appropriate urinary catheterisation to monitor be present). Gallbladder Acute cholecystitis Colon Diverticulitis Fallopian tube Pelvic inﬂammatory disease Prevalence Pancreas Acute pancreatitis Dyspepsia has a prevalence of between 23 and 41% in Obstruction Western populations. Intestine Intestinal obstruction Biliary system Biliary colic Aetiology/pathophysiology Urinary system Ureteric obstruction/colic. Acute urinary retention Diagnosesmadeatendoscopyincludegastritis,duodeni- Ischaemia tis or hiatus hernia (30%); oesophagitis (10–17%); duo- Small/large bowel Strangulated hernia denal ulcers (10–15%); gastric ulcers (5–10%) and oe- Volvulus sophageal or gastric cancer (2%); however, in 30% the Mesenteric ischaemia endoscopy is normal. Functional dyspepsia describes the Perforation/rupture Duodenum/ Perforation of peptic ulcer or presence of symptoms in the absence of mucosal abnor- stomach eroding tumour mality, hiatus hernia, erosive duodenitis or gastritis. Colon Perforated diverticulum or tumour Fallopian tube Ruptured ectopic pregnancy Clinical features Abdominal aorta Ruptured aneurysm Patients may complain of upper abdominal discomfort, Ruptured spleen Trauma retrosternal burning pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, Nonsurgical causes Myocardial infarction, gastroenteritis (inc. Epigastric mass Suspicious barium meal Previous gastric ulcer Clinical features Peritonitis presents with pain, tenderness, rebound ten- derness and excessive guarding. Antise- the pain, so patients often lie very still and have a rigid cretorydrugs(i. At endoscopy, biopsy and urease tests should be Infection may spread to the blood stream (septicaemia) performed. In patients under the age of 55 years with signiﬁcant symptoms but without any ‘alarm symptoms or signs’ antisecretory agents may be commenced. It is recom- Microscopy mended that such patients should undergo Helicobac- An acute inﬂammatory exudate is seen with cellular in- ter pylori testing and where appropriate, eradication ﬁltration of the peritoneum. Investigations The diagnosis is clinical, further investigation depends on the possible underlying cause. Peritonitis Deﬁnition Management Peritonitis is inﬂammation of the peritoneal lining of the Managementinsecondaryperitonitisisaimedatprompt abdomen. Peritonitis may be acute or chronic, primary surgical treatment of the underlying cause (after ag- or secondary. Primary or postoperative peri- tonitis, which is non-surgical in origin, is managed medically. Patients undergo- Intestinal obstruction ing peritoneal dialysis are at particular risk of recur- Deﬁnition rent acute peritonitis, which may result in ﬁbrosis and Intestinal obstruction results from any disease or process scarring preventing further use of this type of dialysis. It may be Chronic liver disease patients with ascites are at risk acute, subacute, chronic or acute on chronic. Aetiology r Chronic infective peritonitis occurs from tuberculous The common causes vary according to age.
Another important part of this step is to allow the patient time to ask questions order eurax 20 gm with mastercard. When the physician and the patient are both in agreement that the information has been successfully transmitted and all questions have been answered discount 20gm eurax fast delivery, then a good decision can be made. Albert Camus (1913–1960) Learning objectives In this chapter you will learn: r the basic concepts of qualitative research r process for critical appraisal of qualitative research r goals and limitations of qualitative research While the evidence-based medicine movement has espoused the critical appraisal and clinical application of controlled trials and observational studies to guide medical decision making, much of medicine and health care revolves around issues and complexities not ideally suited to quantitative research. Qual- itative research is a ﬁeld dedicated to characterizing and illuminating the knowl- edge, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals in the context of health care and clinical medicine. Whereas quantitative research is interested in testing hypothe- ses and estimating effect sizes with precision, qualitative research attempts to describe the breadth of issues surrounding a problem or issue, frequently yield- ing questions and generating hypotheses to be tested. Qualitative research in medicine frequently draws on expertise from anthropology, psychology, and sociology, ﬁelds steeped in a tradition of careful observation of human behavior. Unfortunately, some in medicine have an attitude that qualitative research is not particularly worthwhile for informing patient care. But, you will see that qual- itative studies can be powerful tools to expose psychosocial issues in medicine and as hypothesis-generating studies about personal preferences of patients and health-care workers. Researchers then apply one or more analytic approaches to sift through the available data to identify the main themes and the range of emotions, concerns, or approaches. In the medical literature, in-depth interviews with individuals such as patients or health-care providers and focus-group interviews and discus- sions among patients with a particular condition are the most common study designs encountered. Observations of clinical behavior and analyses of nar- ratives found in medical documents (e. Qualitative research is an appropriate approach to answering research questions about the social, attitudinal, behavioral, and emotional dimensions of health care. When the spectrum of perspectives needs to be known for the develop- ment of interventions such as educational programs or technological implemen- tations, qualitative research can characterize the barriers to and facilitators of change toward the desired practice. This can be the initial research to deter- mine the barriers to adoption of new research results in general practice. Although qualitative research studies have more methodological latitude to accommodate the wide range of data used for analysis, readers of qualitative research reports can nevertheless expect to ﬁnd a clear statement of the study objectives, an account of how subjects were selected to participate and the ratio- nale behind that selection process, a description of the data elements and how they were collected, and an explanation of the analytic approach. Readers of qualitative studies should be able to critically appraise all of these components of the research methods. Designing an intervention to improve the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. The authors’ analysis revealed insights about deﬁnitions, prevalence, process, and content of secrets in primary care. The researchers transcribed the videotaped discussions and reviewed both the videotapes and the transcriptions, coding content related to the speciﬁc types of screening discussed, messages conveyed, and time spent. This objective is often framed as a research question and is the alternative or research hypothesis for the study. Unlike quantitative research studies, where the study objective is generally very speciﬁc and outcome-based, the objective or research question in qualitative studies frequently has a non- speciﬁc or general ﬂavor. In fact, it is one of the strengths of qualitative research that the speciﬁc details surrounding the study objective often emerge through the data collection and the analytic processes can actually change the direction Critical appraisal of qualitative research studies 211 of the research. Nevertheless, it is important for readers to be able to assess what the researchers originally set out to accomplish. Sampling While quantitative research studies generally recruit participants through ran- dom selection or other similar approaches to minimize the potential for selec- tion bias, qualitative research studies are not concerned with accruing a pool of individuals that resemble the larger population. Instead, qualitative studies use purposive sampling, the intentional recruitment of individuals with spe- ciﬁc characteristics to encompass the broadest possible range of perspectives on the issue being studied. Instead, researchers identify and recruit participants until it becomes apparent that all salient attitudes or perspectives have been identi- ﬁed. This approach is known variously as theoretical saturation or sampling to redundancy. Readers should assess the researchers’ rationale for selecting and sampling the set of study participants, and that rationale should be consistent with the study objectives. Data Collection In assessing the validity of the results of quantitative studies, the reader can con- sider whether and how all relevant variables were measured, whether adequate numbers of study participants were included, and whether the data were mea- sured and collected in an unbiased fashion. Similarly, in qualitative research studies, the reader should expect to ﬁnd a credible description of how the researchers obtained the data and be able to assess whether the data collec- tion approach likely yielded all relevant perspectives or behaviors being stud- ied. This criterion is tricky for both researchers and readers, since determining the spectrum of relevant concepts likely comprises part of the study’s objective. Researchers should describe the iterative process by which they collected infor- mation and used the data to inform continued data collection. Readers should ask, and authors should articulate, whether alternative approaches were considered and, if so, why they were not taken. Authors should also detail the efforts undertaken to ascertain information that may be sensitive for a variety of reasons. For example, there may be issues of privacy or social standing which could prevent individuals from revealing infor- mation relevant to the study questions. Researchers and readers must always be concerned about social desirability bias when considering the responses 212 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine or comments that participants may provide when they know they are being observed. The extent to which researchers attempt to collect richly detailed per- spectives from study subjects can help to reassure the reader that subjects at least had ample opportunity to express their knowledge, attitudes, or concerns.
In Chapter 3 eurax 20 gm online, we describe the properties we would expect a Knowledge Network of Disease and the New Taxonomy to have and the type of “Information Commons” that would be needed to create them order eurax 20 gm with mastercard. However, we also emphasized that these resources will forever remain “works in progress. Consider, by analogy, early attempts to conceptualize the world-wide web compared to the use of the internet today. The Committee’s view is that we presently lack the infrastructure required to produce a dramatically improved disease taxonomy. Rather, we propose a path forward to develop the infrastructure and research system needed to create the Knowledge Network of Disease that we believe would be an essential underpinning of a molecularly-based taxonomy. Just as public leadership and investment played essential roles in bringing the world-wide web into existence, we believe such investment will be critical if we are to achieve a grand synthesis of data-intensive biology and medicine. However, we also recognize that, just as the world-wide web needed to pay its own way before it could truly flourish, the Knowledge Network and its underlying Information Commons will need to do the same. The Committee believes that initiatives will be required in three areas to exploit the wealth of information now emerging on molecular mechanisms of disease by creating a dynamic and comprehensive, yet practical and widely-used, Knowledge Network: 1) Design of appropriate strategies to collect and integrate disease-relevant information. The Information Commons would be developed by linking molecular data to patient information on a massive scale. Creating a system for establishing this linkage for increasing numbers of individuals—and making the resulting data widely available to researchers—is the key step in moving toward a Knowledge Network and New Taxonomy. Such coupled data can be generated in several ways—including the modest- scale, targeted molecular studies on patient materials that dominate current practice. However, the most direct and effective discovery paradigm involves observational studies which seek to relate molecular data to complete patient medical records available as by-products of routine healthcare. Effective follow-up of the most promising hypotheses generated through such studies will require laboratory-based biological investigations designed to seek explanations at the biochemical or physiological levels. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 52 2) Implementation of pilot studies to establish a practical framework to discover relationships between molecular and other patient-specific data, patient diagnoses and clinical outcomes. The new discovery model will involve the mining of large sets of patient data acquired during the ordinary course of healthcare. Pilot studies designed to identify and overcome obstacles to successful implementation of this approach will be required before a set of “best practices” can emerge. The sharing of data about individual patients amongst multiple parties—including patients, physicians, insurance companies, the pharmaceutical industry, and academic research groups—will be essential. Current policies on consent, confidentiality, data protection and ownership, health-cost reimbursement and intellectual-property will need to be modified to ensure the free flow of research data between all stakeholders without compromising patient interests. A new discovery model for disease research The current model for relating molecular data to diagnoses and clinical outcomes typically involves abstracting clinical data for a modest number of patients from a clinical to a research setting, then attempting to draw correlations between the abstracted clinical data and molecular data such as genetic polymorphisms, gene-expression levels, and metabolomic profiles. When discoveries are judged definitive and potentially useful, an effort is made to return this information to the clinical setting—for example, as a genetic or genomic diagnostic test. This model creates a large gulf between the point of discovery and the point of care with many opportunities for mis- and even non-communication between key stakeholders. The current model also fails to exploit the wealth of molecular data that are likely to be generated routinely in the future as personalized genomics and perhaps other personalized “omics” become routine in clinical settings. Perhaps most seriously, the current discovery model offers no path toward economically sustainable integration of data-intensive biology with medicine. The Committee views it as both desirable and ultimately inevitable that this discovery model be fundamentally transformed. Instead of moving clinical data and patient samples to research groups to allow analysis, the molecular data of patients should instead be directly available to researchers and health-care providers. The Committee recognizes that this is a radical departure from current practice and one that faces significant challenges, nonetheless, because we believe this new discovery model would have dramatic benefits, we believe that aggressive steps should be taken to implement it. The changes in science, information technology, medicine and social attitudes—as discussed in Chapter 2 (“Why Now? Indeed, there are concrete instances of research initiatives already underway that substantiate the Committee’s belief that a special effort to implement its core recommendations can be achieved. Kaiser members were asked to participate in a study that would allow genetic and other molecular data to be compared with their full electronic health records. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 53 study has faced major hurdles, and required more than 10 years to progress from its conceptualization to large-scale acquisition of genetic data. A pivotal challenge was to build trust between Kaiser’s members, management, and oversight groups such as the relevant institutional review boards. While all parties recognized it was essential that the Kaiser members who were being asked to “opt in” to the research study be fully aware of its aims, the outreach infrastructure required to educate members had to be created nearly from scratch. A second major challenge was acquiring funding to cover the cost of generating extensive molecular data that lacked direct and immediate relevance to patient care—a responsibility that Kaiser itself could not be expected to take on given the pressure to constrain health-care costs.
If a school’s water is supplied from a private supply they should ensure the quality of this water buy eurax 20 gm low cost. Coli generic eurax 20 gm without prescription, available on the Health Protection Surveillance Centre’s website at http://www. The bacteria that cause Hib live and rash with blisters, which appear especially in the in the nose and throat. Babies under one year of age are especially at of infected people and therefore can be spread by the risk of Hib disease. Some infected children can continue to shed the virus in their faeces Precautions: A Hib vaccine is available as part of the for several weeks after recovery. When a case infected may not develop any symptoms but can still of Hib disease occurs the local Department of Public spread the virus. Younger children are more provide an explanatory letter and leafet to parents and susceptible to infection due to close contact. Precautions: Frequent hand washing especially after Exclusion: Cases of serious Hib disease will be too ill to contact with secretions from the nose or throat and after attend school. If evidence exists of ongoing HaemophilusinfuenzaeFrequentlyAskedQuestions/ transmission within the school exclusion of pupils until the spots have gone may be necessary. The type of louse which affects the head is particularly common and anyone can catch hepatitis) them. Lice spread by direct head-to-head contact This is usually a mild illness, particularly in children, with an infected person and therefore tend to be more caused by a virus, which infects the liver. The incubation common in children as their play activities facilitate this period is between two-six weeks. Live lice are transmitted when the lice fever, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach ache and after are alive on a person’s head. Lice cannot live away from a few days, jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes and skin) a human host; most die within 3 days. The female lice lay eggs which glue to the hair and only become easily visible when they have hatched An infected person is infectious for approximately one and are empty (nits). Nits remain in the hair until it falls week before the start of, and for a week or so after the out, which may take up to 2 years. However, a person can be are usually the frst signs of headlice but are due to an infected without developing any symptoms and so can be allergic reaction which can take four to eight weeks to an unknown source of infection to others. The presence of nits (empty egg casts) does not mean that active infection is Hepatitis A is spread by hands which have not present and is not an indication for treatment. There are a number of different Precautions: Scrupulous personal hygiene and hand treatment options. Research suggests that the use of washing is important to prevent spread and an adequate chemical agents is more effective than other treatment supply of liquid soap and disposable towels should be options, such as lavender, tea-tree oil, and eucalyptus. Dimeticone (Hedrin ®) is a non- Hepatitis A vaccine may be advised if there is evidence neurotoxic agent. Alternatively parents may wish vaccine must be given to contacts soon after they have to try mechanical removal of lice by wet combing with been exposed. Exclusion is recommended while someone is unwell, or Results depend on a correct and consistent technique until 7 days after the onset of jaundice, whichever is the and time spent wet combing. The Department of Public Health will give advice on exclusion for staff and pupils as necessary. Precautions: The best way to stop infection is for families to learn how to check for lice on a regular basis. This way Resources: Useful information on hepatitis A can be they can fnd any lice before they have a chance to breed. HepatitisA/ Regular combing of the hair with a fne-toothed comb (detection combing) should be encouraged at all times. If live lice are detected on one member of the family it is important that all other family members are checked for headlice. In school if live lice are seen on a pupil’s head the pupil’s parent(s) should be advised to inspect and treat their child for headlice. If there are several cases it may be of beneft to send a letter to all parents advising them to inspect their children’s heads and initiate treatment only if live lice are seen. People infected with the hepatitis B virus unlikely to occur now in this country as all blood is may become unwell with jaundice and fever or more carefully screened. Hepatitis B infections are most commonly spread by sexual contact with an infected person or by blood-to- There is no risk to other pupils or staff from an blood contact. The virus may also be virus should not have their activities restricted, nor passed from an infected mother to her baby before or be excluded from school.
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