By S. Kadok. The College of Saint Rose. 2018.
Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Journal Articles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference cheap 25 mg imipramine free shipping. In this case discount 25mg imipramine free shipping, give whatever name has been used for the illustration and follow it with a comma and the title. Experiences of older women with cancer receiving hospice care: significance for physical therapy. Parts of journal articles not in English with original or romanized language included 17. Evolucion de la mortalidad infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998) [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain Journals 65 (1980-1998)]. Appendix, [Excerpts from "Prescription Pain Medications: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers for Health Care Professionals"]; p. Parts of journals in two equal languages Location (Pagination) of Part for Parts of Journal Articles (required) General Rules for Location (Pagination) Begin location with "p. S10-8 End page information with a period Specific Rules for Location (Pagination) Roman numerals used as page numbers No page numbers appear on the pages of the part Box 69 Roman numerals used as page numbers Unlike the practice with volume and issue numbers, keep roman numerals when they are used as page numbers Give them in upper or lower case, whichever appears in the publication Appendix 2, Common aquatic invertebrates; p. Parts of journals in two equal languages Examples of Citations to Parts of Journal Articles 1. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors suppress aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells. Long-term radiographic and functional outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy induced perirenal hematomas. Evaluation and management of patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension: is another new paradigm really needed? Unnumbered/unlettered and untitled figure in a journal article Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. Predictive value of a cross-cultural asthma case-detection tool in an elementary school population. Appendix A, International study of asthma and allergy in childhood questionnaire; p. Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Appendix, Equations, obtained from cross-sectional analysis, relating height to age; p. Synthesis of (-)-longithorone A: using organic synthesis to probe a proposed biosynthesis. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Image 4, Immunohistochemical staining of a urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation with anti- caveolin-1; p. Evolucion de la mortalidad infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998) [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)]. Raccomandazioni per il trasporto inter ed intra ospedaliero del paziente critico = Recommendations on the transport of critically ill patients. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Journal Titles The general format for a reference to an entire journal title, including punctuation: - for a title continuing to be published: - for a title that ceased publication: Journals 71 Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles If a journal is still being published, as shown in the first example, follow volume and date information with a hyphen and three spaces. If a journal has ceased publication, as in example two, separate beginning and ending volume and date information with a hyphen surrounded by a space. When citing a journal, always provide information on the latest title and publisher unless you are citing an earlier version. If you wish to cite all volumes for a journal that has changed title, provide a separate citation for each title. Many journal titles with both print and Internet versions do not carry the same exact content. If you viewed a journal title on the Internet, do not cite it as if it were a print one. Note that the rules for creating references to journal titles are not the same as the rules for cataloging them. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Journal Titles Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Journal Titles Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Box 73 Journals appearing in different editions If a journal is published in more than one edition: Capitalize all significant words in edition information 74 Citing Medicine Separate the edition from the title itself by a space and place it in parentheses End all title information with a period Examples: American Homeopathy (Consumer Edition). Ausgabe Klientiere Heimtiere becomes Tierarztliche Praxis (Ausgabe Klientiere Heimtiere). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Journal title with unknown place of publication and publisher Publisher for Entire Journal Titles (required) General Rules for Publisher Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the journal, using whatever capitalization and punctuation are found there Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references.
White cell casts occur in tubulointerstitial because protein is actively reabsorbed in the proxi- disease and pyelonephritis order 50mg imipramine. Normal urinary protein excretion is <150 as granular or epithelial cell casts exist generic 25mg imipramine with mastercard. In hypona- 2 Glomerular proteinuria is due to increased permeabil- traemia, a low urinary sodium is physiological, whereas ity of the glomerular basement membrane. Heavy with a normal serum sodium, a low urinary sodium in- proteinuria (>3 g/day) is termed nephrotic range dicates salt-and-water depletion (dehydration). Following abdominal or pelvic surgery, it can and oedema is termed nephrotic syndrome. Urinary 2-microglobulin can be used as a mea- these are similar to the urine urea and creatinine con- sure of tubular function, because this small peptide centrations, this indicates a urinary leak. The proteinuria is usu- ally mild in tubular disease, such as in acute tubular Proteinuria necrosis or pyelonephritis. Denition 4 Increased secretion of protein (Tamm Horsfall pro- Agreater than normal amount of protein in the urine. Microalbuminuria (30 200 mcg albumin/24 h or an early morning urine albumin:creatinine ratio >3) pre- dicts mortality and renal failure in diabetes mellitus and Clinical features cardiovascular deaths in the elderly. It also occurs in Proteinuria is usually asymptomatic, although heavy hypertension, myocardial infarction and as part of the proteinuria may be noticed as frothy urine, or if acute phase response. The outlines of the kidneys are unreliably seen because of overlying bowel Investigations gas. All positive urine dipstick measurement of protein should be conrmed by laboratory testing. It avoids caused by alkaline urine, antibiotics and X-ray contrast the use of contrast dyes, which have to be given intra- media. False negatives occur when there is proteinuria venously, are nephrotoxic, and to which patients occa- without much albuminuria, e. In renal failure, small Urinalysis and microscopy to look for haematuria and kidneys mean chronic renal failure, normal size kid- evidence of urinary tract infection. The exceptions are diabetes mellitus, munoglobulins and plasma protein electrophoresis. Urine electrophoresis for Bence Jones protein or dif- r In refractory pyelonephritis to look for a renal abscess, ferentiating glomerular (mainly albumin) from tubu- obstruction or an underlying anatomical abnormality lar loss (lighter chain proteins). Serial X-rays are r In polycystic kidney disease it can be useful if one cyst then taken, which show the passage of the dye through is thought to be infected or malignant. If there Nuclear medicine scans is obstruction, dye will be held-up on one or both sides. Anon-nephrotoxic radioisotope is given intravenously, The exact site of obstruction can often be seen with di- which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys. Allingdefectwithintheuretersuggestsa may be static (for anatomical detail), or dynamic (for radiolucent stone or tumour. All patients struction, furosemide is given the radioisotope will should be well hydrated. Gadolinium is stents may be placed as part of the procedure to relieve non-nephrotoxic. Each renal artery the catheter, to demonstrate the cause and site of is selectively catheterised and contrast injected. The amount produced is lower in those with through the urethra in order to visualise the interior low muscle bulk, in women, children and the elderly. Flexible cystoscopy can be done under It is freely ltered, a small amount is also secreted at local anaesthetic, as a daycase procedure, but rigid cys- the tubules. Plasma creatinine is increased by strenu- toscopyisperformedunderanepiduralorgeneralanaes- ous exercise, ingestion of meat, certain drugs (trimetho- thetic. The bladder is distended with distilled water or prim and cimetidine) impair tubular secretion. In most patients, serial or previous spected, and breoptic ureteroscopes can be passed up, measurements of creatinine are useful to monitor the to look for ureteric lesions such as stones or carcinoma. Clearance is dened as the virtual volume of blood cleared (by the kidney) of solute per unit time. When nephrons are lost or are not func- where U = urinary concentration, V = urine ow rate tioning properly, there is compensation by the remain- and P = plasma creatinine. It is 24-hour urinary collections are inconvenient and in- higher following protein intake, in a catabolic state, af- accurate. The best known of these is the creatinine because it is avidly reabsorbed at the proximal Cockcroft and Gault formula: tubules in a uid-depleted state. If the creatinine is also proportionally raised (creatinine is normally Forwomen multiply by 1. The biopsy can be performed percutaneously, or at open surgery (unusual unless the other method is not possible, or contraindicated, e. Ultrasound guidance is used, and usually two cores are obtained using a spring-loaded biopsy needle. These are examined under light microscopy, electron microscopy andimmunouoresenceorimmunoperoxidasestaining.
Among the important nontechnical functions of medicine buy 75 mg imipramine with amex, a third one is ethical rather than magical cheap imipramine 50mg amex, secular rather than religious. It does not depend on a conspiracy into which the sorcerer enters with his adept, nor on myths to which the priest gives form, but on the shape which medical culture gives to interpersonal relations. The first occupation to monopolize health care is that of the physician of the late twentieth century. Paradoxically, the more attention is focused on the technical mastery of disease, the larger becomes the symbolic and nontechnical function performed by medical technology. The less proof there is that more money increases survival rates in a given branch of cancer treatment, the more money will go to the medical divisions deployed in that special theater of operations. Nontechnical functions prevail in the removal of adenoids: more than 90 percent of all tonsillectomies performed in the United States are technically unnecessary, yet 20 to 30 percent of all children still undergo the operation. One in a thousand dies directly as a consequence of the operation and 16 in a thousand suffer from serious complications. All are subjected to emotional aggression: they are incarcerated in a hospital, separated from their parents, and introduced to the unjustified and more often than not pompous cruelty of the medical establishment. In both cities he was able to fill the major football stadium twice in one day with crowds who hysterically acclaimed his macabre ability to replace human hearts. Their alienating effect reaches people who have no access to a neighborhood clinic, much less to a hospital. It provides them with an abstract assurance that salvation through science is possible. The experience in the stadium at Rio prepared me for the evidence I was shown shortly afterwards which proved that the Brazilian police have so far been the first to use life-extending equipment in the torture of prisoners. Such extreme abuse of medical techniques seems grotesquely coherent with the dominant ideology of medicine. But this is not the prevailing result of the nontechnical side-effects of medical technology. The intensity of the black-magic influence of a medical procedure does not depend on its being technically effective. The effect of the nocebo, like that of the placebo, is largely independent of what the physician does. Medical procedures turn into black magic when, instead of mobilizing his self- healing powers, they transform the sick man into a limp and mystified voyeur of his own treatment. Medical procedures turn into sick religion when they are performed as rituals that focus the entire expectation of the sick on science and its functionaries instead of encouraging them to seek a poetic interpretation of their predicament or find an admirable example in some person long dead or next door who learned to suffer. Medical procedures multiply disease by moral degradation when they isolate the sick in a professional environment rather than providing society with the motives and disciplines that increase social tolerance for the troubled. Magical havoc, religious injury, and moral degradation generated under the pretext of a biomedical pursuit are all crucial mechanisms contributing to social iatrogenesis. When doctors first set up shop outside the temples in Greece, India, and China, they ceased to be medicine men. When they claimed rational power over sickness, society lost the sense of the complex personage and his integrated healing which the sorcerer-shaman or curer had provided. To the hand that wielded the sword was attributed the power to subdue not only the enemy but also the spirit. Up to the eighteenth century the king of England laid his hands every year upon those afflicted with facial tuberculosis whom physicians knew they were unable to cure. Today the medical establishment is about to reclaim the right to perform miracles. Medicine claims the patient even when the etiology is uncertain, the prognosis unfavorable, and the therapy of an experimental nature. Under these circumstances the attempt at a "medical miracle" can be a hedge against failure, since miracles may only be hoped for and cannot, by definition, be expected. The radical monopoly over health care that the contemporary physician claims now forces him to reassume priestly and royal functions that his ancestors gave up when they became specialized as technical healers. The medicalization of the miracle provides further insight into the social function of terminal care. The patient is strapped down and controlled like a spaceman and then displayed on television. These heroic performances serve as a rain-dance for millions, a liturgy in which realistic hopes for autonomous life are transmuted into the delusion that doctors will deliver health from outer space. By dumping, the medical lords divest themselves of the nuisance of low-prestige care and invest policemen, teachers, or personnel officers with a derivative medical fiefdom. Medicine retains unchecked autonomy in defining what constitutes sickness, but drops on others the task of ferreting out the sick and providing for their treatment. Only medicine knows what constitutes addiction, though policemen are supposed to know how it should be controlled. Only medicine can define brain damage, but it allows teachers to stigmatize and manage the healthy-looking cripples. When the need for a retrenchment of medical goals is discussed in medical literature, it now usually takes the shape of planned patient-dumping. People who look strange or who behave oddly are subversive until their common traits have been formally named and their startling behavior slotted into a recognized pigeonhole.
Food and Drug Administration became aware of numerous reports associating terfenadine with malignant cardiac arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes ( 42) purchase 75 mg imipramine otc. By July 1992 purchase imipramine 75mg online, 44 reports of adverse cardiovascular events had been reported, 9 resulting in death, 3 of which occurred after an overdose of terfenadine ( 42). Retrospective analysis of case reports citing terfenadine-induced cardiovascular events has been helpful in defining risk factors in patients prone to these cardiac side effects ( 42). It should be emphasized that terfenadine and astemizole were very safe and effective drugs that were able to be used in most clinical circumstances. Pharmacodynamics In contrast to first-generation agents, second-generation agents do not operate by simple competitive inhibition. Instead, these agents bind to and dissociate from H 1 receptors slowly in a noncompetitive fashion. They are not displaced from H 1 receptors in the presence of high histamine concentrations ( 29,42). However, the second-generation antagonists are potent suppressors of the wheal-and-flare responses, and this feature has been established as a useful method for comparing the clinical potencies of the different agents available ( 38,44). Their lipophobic properties prevent them from crossing the blood brain barrier; thus, their activity on H 1 receptors is restricted to the peripheral nervous system ( 30,45). Pharmacy Second-generation antihistamines are available only as oral formulations. Studies have reported that a single dose of terfenadine (120 mg) or fexofenadine (180 mg) is equally effective as 60 mg given twice a day in improving allergic rhinitis symptom scores and suppressing histamine-induced wheal-and-flare responses ( 46,47). Astemizole and loratadine should be injected on an empty stomach to avoid problems with absorption. All three agents have comparable antihistaminic potency to each another and to first-generation antihistamines. Azelastine has been demonstrated to inhibit superoxide generation by eosinophils and neutrophils, which may represent one of its important antiinflammatory mechanisms (52). These drugs can bind to H1 receptors in a competitive and noncompetitive fashion ( 3,53,54). Because doxepin has a very high H1 receptor affinity, it has become an acceptable alternative agent for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria ( 64). Numerous studies have compared the antihistaminic efficacy of second-generation antagonists with that of first-generation antagonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Studies have reported that a topical eye preparation of the potent H 1 antagonist, levocabastine, available in the United States as Livostin, is very effective for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis ( 84). Subsequently, many novel topical antihistamine and antiinflammatory agents have become available in the United States for the treatment of this annoying and often debilitating disorder ( 3). Hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine are still considered by most clinicians to be the most effective agents in the treatment of allergic skin disorders because of their greater antipruritic and sedative effects ( 21,44,85). One exception is cold-induced urticaria, for which cyproheptadine is the treatment of choice (86). All of the second-generation agents have been found to be effective for the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (3,87,88). A position paper from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology addressing the use of antihistamines in patients with asthma has served to clarify the controversy surrounding their use in patients with this disease ( 89). Although these agents are not considered first-line therapy for asthma, they are certainly not contraindicated in asthma patients who require them for concomitant allergic problems ( 89). Histamine is increased during the early and late airway response after specific allergen provocation and during spontaneous asthma exacerbations. Many studies have shown that antihistamines are bronchoprotective depending on the stimulus. Several current studies have demonstrated the additive effects of antihistamines and antileukotriene agents in both allergic rhinitis and asthma. Antihistamines serve as important adjuncts in the management of anaphylaxis but should never replace the first-line therapy, which by general consensus is epinephrine (10). Antihistamines are commonly used to treat atopic dermatitis but have limited clinical utility. The sedating first-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine, are often more effective than nonsedating agents for controlling pruritus because they allow the patient to sleep. Antihistamines should be used cautiously during pregnancy to avoid the risk for teratogenicity ( 10). Long-term clinical experience using antihistamines during pregnancy has shown that tripelennamine, chlorpheniramine, and diphenhydramine cause no greater risk for birth defects than experienced by the normal population. Antihistamines are excreted in breast milk and therefore infants of nursing mothers who were taking first-generation antihistamines have been reported to experience drowsiness and irritability.
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