Inhibiting xanthine oxidase with allopurinol has been one of trated here in abbreviated form purchase 30caps npxl free shipping. Rasburicase is a recom- formed through the metabolic intermediates inosine cheap 30caps npxl amex, hypoxan- binant form of urate oxidase recently introduced into practice Inhibiting xanthine oxidase with allopurinol has been during cell death. Steady-state concentration of potas- is therefore much less prone to precipitation than uric sium in the serum is a reflection of both influx (from acid. If manifestations including spasms, tetany, seizures, hyperkalemia develops rapidly, then clinical symptoms and bronchospasm. The most feared arrest particularly in the setting of concurrent hyper- consequence of hyperkalemia is life-threatening car- kalemia and other electrolyte imbalances. Chvostek diac arrhythmia such as ventricular fibrillation or and Trousseau signs may be present in the sympto- asystole [40, 55, 78, 84]. It is thought that the major cause of from dying cancer cells into the circulation. The clini- ally accumulate in the kidney, however, decreased cal sequelae of hyperphosphatemia are largely benign renal glomerular filtration reduces urine flow, which with one notable exception: when serum phosphate promotes further crystals to form in static urine. To add levels reach a certain threshold, soluble calcium inter- to the problem, children presenting with malignancy acts chemically with phosphate to precipitate into frequently exhibit some degree of dehydration and pre- calcium phosphate. It has been estimated that if the renal azotemia because of poor oral intake and/or fever solubility product factor (Ca × P) reaches a level of 60 at diagnosis. Oliguria from hypovolemia favors intrare- or more, then calcium phosphate will precipitate . If the patient has the and hypocalcemia secondary to hyperphosphatemia added misfortune of his/her tumor invading or com- results . For example, secretion of parathyroid with clearance of other renally excreted compounds Chapter 15 The Tumor Lysis Syndrome: An Oncologic and Metabolic Emergency 209 such as urea, creatinine, and free water. Other useful of uremia include fatigue/weakness, pericarditis, signs include facial plethora or swelling and head/neck and mental confusion and may interfere with nor- venous congestion, which might suggest superior vena mal platelet function, which is of particular concern cava syndrome and cough, stridor, and orthopnea that in thrombocytopenic patients. As renal function might indicate an anterior mediastinal mass and tra- diminishes, signs of volume overload, such as dysp- cheal compression. Critical serum electrolyte studies include a aimed at reducing serum uric acid and phosphate lev- basic electrolyte panel (serum sodium, potassium, els and reestablishing normal urine output, dialysis or chloride, bicarbonate), and serum values for total cal- other renal replacement therapy may be required in cium, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, blood urea severe or refractory cases. A urinalysis with microscopy Large amounts of endogenous intracellular acids are will give an indication of specific gravity and may released from dying tumor cells and their buildup in the exhibit urate crystals, casts, and/or hematuria. In such cases, nephro- progression of malignancy by history and physical logic and/or urologic consultation may be indicated to evaluation. Relevant historical information includes determine the need for dialysis and/or urinary stenting/ time of onset of symptoms referable to the malignancy, catheterization . Other pertinent and to determine whether alterations need to be made historical components that will help guide clinical in clinical management. On examination, special is usually warranted, with intensity and frequency of attention should be given to blood pressure, cardiac monitoring governed by clinical status. However, eral intravenous catheters through which fluids and if delay is not possible (e. Rather, each patient’s therapy (3 L m−2 day−1 or 200 mL kg−1 day−1 if less than 10 kg in should be tailored to his/her particular clinical cir- weight). Diuretics (mannitol and/or furosemide) may be helpful to achieve this urine output, but should not be used in the setting of acute obstructive uropathy or 15. Recently, however, renal function should be aggressively hydrated [14, hyperuricemic patients who would otherwise be at risk 37, 68]. Vigorous fluid therapy maintains urine output, of uric acid nephropathy have been very effectively flushes away existing precipitated uric acid or calcium treated with recombinant urate oxidase, which rap- phosphate crystals from renal tubules (thereby reduc- idly and effectively reduces serum uric acid levels and ing obstructive nephropathy), prevents urinary stasis, reverses uric acid nephropathy. Consequently, hyper- which favors further crystallization, and reduces meta- phosphatemia and calcium phosphate nephropathy bolic acidosis. D’Orazio effectively treated with urate oxidase and who are at low either orally or intravenously, allopurinol effectively risk for uric acid nephropathy but who remain at risk for decreases the formation of new uric acid and has been calcium phosphate nephropathy. Careful thought should shown to reduce the incidence of uric acid obstructive be given to the need for fluid alkalinization. If indicated, alkalinization of the urine can be achie- Though usually well-tolerated and moderately effective, ved by addition of sodium bicarbonate to intravenous it has several drawbacks, which should be considered fluids (Table 15. When alkalinizing whose clearance is xanthine oxidase-dependent, neces- and hyperhydrating a patient, each urine void should sitating dose reductions in purine analogues when used be dipped and adjustments in the rate and/or amount simultaneously with allopurinol [8, 23, 50, 77]. Obviously, potassium, serum uric acid elevation and preserved renal func- calcium, and phosphate should be withheld from tion. If, however, serum uric acid levels are markedly hydration fluids to avoid worsening of hyperkalemia elevated and renal function is significantly impaired, and hyperphosphatemia and to avoid triggering of cal- then rasburicase should be considered the treatment of cium phosphate precipitation in vivo [5, 14, 41, 75]. Clinical manifestations proved far more effective than allopurinol in reducing of hyperkalemia usually appear with serum potassium uric acid levels and overall length of hyperuricemia levels above 6.
Her symptoms result from destruction of erythrocytes by a particular organism order npxl 30 caps, which was transmitted by the hard-shell tick (ixodid) best npxl 30 caps. A detailed history reveals that he also has severe pain with urination (nongonococcal urethritis). A 35-year-old female who lives in the southeastern portion of the United States and likes to hike in the Great Smoky Mountains presents with a spotted rash that started on her extremities and spread to her trunk and face. A biopsy of one of these lesions reveals necrosis and reactive hyperplasia of blood vessels. A 21-year-old college athlete presents with a nagging cough and a 20-lb weight loss. In addition to the chronic cough and weight loss, his main symptoms consist of fever, night sweats, and chest pains. A microscopic section from one of the enlarged lymph nodes that is stained with an acid-fast stain reveals the presence of numerous (“too many to count”) acid-fast organ- isms. An adult migrant farm worker in the San Joaquin Valley of California has been hospitalized for 2 weeks with progressive lassitude, fever of unknown origin, and skin nodules on the lower extremities. A biopsy of one of the deep dermal nodules shown in the photomicrograph below reveals the presence of a. Sections of tissue infected with Blastomyces would be expected to show organisms with a. The india ink prep reveals through negative staining that these yeasts have a capsule. A patient who presents to the hospital with severe headaches devel- ops convulsions and dies. At autopsy the brain grossly has a “Swiss cheese” appearance due to the presence of numerous small cysts containing milky fluid. A 27-year-old male develops acute diarrhea consisting of foul- smelling, watery stools, along with severe abdominal cramps and flatu- lence, after returning from a trip to the Caribbean. The most common sign or symptom produced by the organism seen in the associated photomicrograph of a distal colonic biopsy is a. Soon after returning from a trip to Costa Rica, a 41-year-old female develops recurrent chills and high fever that recur every 48 h. Examination of her peripheral blood reveals red granules (Schüffner’s dots) in enlarged, young erythrocytes. Which one of the listed organisms is most likely to have produced her signs and symptoms? An apathetic male infant in an underdeveloped country is found to have peripheral edema, a “moon” face, and an enlarged, fatty liver. Which one of the listed mechanisms is involved in the pathogenesis of this child’s abnormalities? A patient with malabsorption who develops a deficiency of vitamin A is most likely to subsequently develop a. Which one of the following individuals is most likely to have a defi- ciency of vitamin E? A 62-year-old male alcoholic is brought into the emergency room acting very confused. Physical examination reveals a thin and emaciated male who has problems with memory, ataxia, and paralysis of his extraoc- ular muscles. Extensive workup reveals atrophy and small hemorrhages in the periventricular region of his brain and around the mamillary bodies. The clinical combination of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia re- sulting from a deficiency of niacin is referred to as a. A 70-year-old female is brought to the emergency room by her granddaughter because she has developed ecchymosis covering many areas of her body. Her granddaughter states that her grandmother lives alone at home and has not been eating well. Her diet has consisted of mainly tea and toast, as she does not drink milk or eat fruits or vegetables. Your phys- ical examination reveals small hemorrhages around hair follicles, some of these follicles having an unusual “corkscrew” appearance. The signs and symptoms in this individual are most likely caused by a deficiency of a. Laboratory examination of a 46-year-old male who presents with decreasing vision and photophobia finds a high anion–gap metabolic aci- dosis. A comatose 27-year-old woman is brought to the emergency room by paramedics, and the strong odor of bitter almonds is present. Which one of the following sets of serum levels is most likely to be seen in a young female as a result of self-induced starvation (anorexia nervosa)? An 8-year-old boy is found to have progressive corneal vasculari- zation, deafness, notched incisors, and a flattened nose. The mother’s only other pregnancy was unre- markable, and she has never received any blood or blood products. Artificial surfactant is most likely to be used in the treatment of an infant with a.
The prognosis for full recovery appears to cate the patient is able to feel the stimulus purchase npxl 30 caps online. Idiopathic epilepsy is used as a diagnosis when other causes of seizures have been ruled out cheap npxl 30caps with mastercard. A syndrome Because it appears that these birds cannot mobilize of idiopathic epilepsy has been described in Red-lored body stores of calcium, long-term prevention of recur- Amazon Parrots that has been suggested to have a ring problems requires that birds receive adequate 124 genetic basis. Seizures of undetermined cause oc- levels of calcium in proper balance with phosphorus, cur with some degree of frequency in Greater Indian as well as sufficient levels of vitamins A, D3 and E. Mild to severe seizure activity may occur in these birds with signs ranging from Hypoglycemia “periodic trance-like states” and “stiffening up” to Hypoglycemia may occur as a result of starvation or grand mal-type seizures. Blood glucose less than 150 mg/dl (or half Diazepam can be used to temporarily interrupt sei- the species’ normal value) may be an indication of zure activity. Owners should be advised that administered intravenously with caution because the therapy does not “cure” the condition, and they they are hypertonic and may cause tissue damage if should keep a calendar recording seizure activity and perivascular leaking occurs. The use of electroencephalograms in diagnosing epi- lepsy is difficult in any species of animal. The knowl- edge of normal electroencephalogram patterns for Seizures and Idiopathic Epilepsy avian species is limited as is the availability of the Seizures in birds can have numerous etiologies and equipment and trained personnel to make and evalu- various clinical presentations (Table 28. The bird may remain rigid or have Lafora Body Neuropathy major motor activity for a few seconds or a few min- utes. The postictal Lafora body neuropathy has been reported as a cause phase is variable. This accumulation of glyco- tamin E and selenium deficiencies, thiamine deficiency, hypovi- taminosis B6) proteins is believed to be the result of a defect in Metabolic (Heat stress, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hepatic intracellular metabolism. In humans, the condition encephalopathy) is known as familial progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Toxic (Heavy metals, insecticides) It has also been diagnosed as a cause of spontaneous Infectious (Bacterial, fungal, viral or parasitic) convulsions or epilepsy in beagles, miniature poodles Traumatic and basset hounds. The inclusions may be found in Neoplastic other organs including the liver, heart, skeletal mus- Hypocalcemic (African Grey Parrots) cle and sweat glands. In the affected cockatiel, La- Hypoglycemic (Raptors) fora-like particles were identified diffusely through- out the liver. Lead intoxication causes a demyeli- nation of the vagus nerve and a block of presynaptic transmission by com- petitive inhibition of calcium. De- myelination produces the clinical signs associated with peripheral neuropathy. Lead encephalopathy is the result of diffuse perivascular edema, increases in cerebrospinal fluid and necrosis of nerve cells. The optic lobes and medulla may be pre- bird did not respond to supportive therapy. Gro ss and microsco pic hypertrophy of the parathyroid glands and enlarged adrenal glands. Xanthomatosis may affect the The organism is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacil- brain where it appears in association with blood lus. The spores are environmentally stable, can survive in the soil for years and are resistant to Toxic Neuropathies heat and chemical disinfectants. Heavy Metals Botulism is uncommon in companion birds, but oc- Lead and zinc poisoning are the most common causes 92 curs with some degree of frequency in waterfowl. In addition to Decaying organic matter provides adequate sub- common sources of lead contamination, chronic expo- strate for development of the clostridial spores. The sure to automobile exhaust has been shown to con- toxin can persist for months under alkaline condi- tribute to the cumulative lead concentrations in body 88 tions (pH 9). Birds eat the toxin-laden maggots and dis- systems by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein seminate the disease. Neurologic changes sug- phagidae) that are found in high concentrations on gestive of plumbism include lethargy, depression, decomposing carcasses and carry the greatest con- centrations of toxin. Organophos- at motor endplates causing signs of peripheral phate bonds are considered irreversible, while neuropathy. All peripheral nerves, including cranial carbamate bonds are slowly reversible (spontaneous nerves, are affected. Acetylcholine is the neuro- limber neck resulting from paralysis of the cervical transmitter found at autonomic ganglia (both sympa- musculature. Most birds exhibit hindlimb paresis thetic and parasympathetic); postganglionic para- first, which is characterized by sitting on their ster- sympathetic nerves affecting smooth muscle, cardiac num with legs extended behind their body. Young birds and nictitans, ocular discharge and hypersaliva- and males are also more susceptible. Mice are chal- Two types of neuropathy and corresponding clinical lenged with the serum of an affected bird and control signs have been described related to toxicosis with mice are left untreated while others receive anti- acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. A positive diagnosis is made if only unpro- signs are related to excessive stimulation of acetyl- tected mice die.
Melanistic testes discount 30 caps npxl mastercard, like melanistic ovaries buy generic npxl 30 caps, can occur in some species of Psittaciformes (Golden Conure, Blue and Gold Macaw, some cocka- toos), Passeriformes and Piciformes (Keel-billed Tou- cans). Under hormonal control the testes can in- crease in size by 300- to 500-fold (Figure 29. In this Eclectus Parrot, the right testicle was of normal size and enlargement of the left testicle prominent pattern of blood vessels on the testicular was caused by a seminoma (courtesy of Kim Joyner). During the breeding season, yel- lowish testes may turn white, while melanistic testes may change from black-grey to grey-white. Birds that do not have this structure have Convoluted seminiferous tubules comprised of germ little sperm storage capacity. Proctodeal glands de- (spermatogonia) and Sertoli cells make up the bulk velop to varying degrees in birds and undergo hyper- of the testes and are responsible for spermatogene- trophy in response to increases in steroid sex hor- sis. Melanistic cells responsible for The ejaculatory papillae (terminal projectory papil- the color of the testicles are found in the same loca- lae of the ductus deferens), paracloacal vascular bod- tion. Mature spermatozoa exit via straight tubules ies, cloacal folds and the phallus are involved with into the rete testis, which connects the testis to the male copulation and are variably developed in avian cranial aspect of the epididymis. The epididymis, considered ves- cular bodies contribute to the lymphatic erection of tigial in birds, lies along the dorsomedial aspect of either cloacal or phallic tissue, and release a lymph- the testes and is concealed from view during laparo- like transparent transudate when engorged. In some species of studied, it is known that ratites, tinamous, Anserifor- birds, the epididymis is connected throughout its mes, some members of the family Cracidae and one length by tubules to the rete testis. The ductus during copulation, but semen transfer occurs by di- deferens is under hormonal control and is more con- rect cloaca-to-cloaca contact without intromission. In the non- breeding season, it blends indistinguishably with the The phallus, if present, is located ventrally in the ureter and kidneys. Dysfunction or disease of the phallus the dorsal wall of the urodeum, which functions as a can cause reproductive failure. The last two to three millime- not have a phallus, and copulation is accomplished ters of the ductus deferens project into the urodeum by an eversion of the cloacal wall, which contains the forming a papilla. In passerine birds and budgeri- slightly raised papilla that transfers semen to the everted orifice of the oviduct. The Large Psittaciformes 9-10 million/ml 50-100 µl transient time required for sperm to pass from the Emu 4. Live- in the efferent and connecting ductules of the dead counts, computer-assisted measurement of epididymis and ductus deferens accompanies the spermatozoal swimming speed and metabolic rates of spermatozoa. Seminal plasma composition can vary semen can also be used to determine semen quality. A lymph-like fluid, called “transparent initiates the growth of seminiferous tubules and re- fluid,” originates in the proctodeum and mixes with sults in increased spermatogenesis. The function of this velopment of the testosterone-producing cells of Ley- fluid is uncertain, but it does contain blood clotting 86 dig. Testicular growth is approximately logarithmic agents that are deleterious to the spermatozoa. Higher In Passeriformes, spermatozoa are of the complex levels of testosterone are then responsible for male type, which can be differentiated from the simple sexual behavior. Testosterone increases spermato- type of sperm found in other birds by their predomi- genesis and growth of accessory reproductive organs, nantly spiral structure. Testoster- one also causes manifestation of secondary sexual Semen can be collected from birds for artificial in- characteristics such as comb growth, plumage and semination, to evaluate its reproductive potential, to detect disease and to distinguish species or subspe- cies. Normal semen is light white to milky, and brown, green or red discoloration may be due to fecal contamination or cloacal hemorrhage from over-exu- berant semen collection. Production of fertile eggs is the best indicator of sperm viability, but determining sperm count and motility can be used to estimate function (Table 29. Sperm concentration can be determined by mounting semen on a hanging drop slide, use of a spermatocrit or direct counting in a hemocytometer. This behavior can occur in pairs that have been stable essary prior to evaluation. The precise cause of these attacks the percentage of spermatozoa moving in a forward is unknown, but they are most common in the early part of the breeding season. Males generally become reproductively active motion as seen under high magnification. Live-dead earlier than the females, and a hen’s failure to respond to a counts using an eosin-nigrosin stain make it possible soliciting male may facilitate an attack. In this cockatoo hen, most of the beak and a part of the skull had been removed by the male. Specific reproductive behav- infection, nutritional insufficiencies, obesity, lack of ior affected by testosterone, and probably mediated exercise, heredity, senility and concurrent stress such by other hormones, includes territorial aggression, as environmental temperature changes or systemic courtship, copulation, nest building, incubation and disease. Testosterone levels are highest in ing birds out of season, egg production in virginal hens many species at the time of establishment and de- and a persistent cystic right oviduct (Color 29.
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