M. Grok. Southwestern Assemblies of God University.
Factors important in immune defense reactions include the location and rate of proliferation flonase 50mcg with amex, vascularization or the lack thereof buy 50mcg flonase with mastercard, and necrosis with pha- gocytosis of disintegrating tumor tissue. We never actually get to see those rare tumors against which immune control might have been successfully eli- cited, instead we only see those clinically relevant tumors that have unfortu- nately become successful tumors which have escaped immune control. Evidence of the immune system’s role in tumor control includes: & Greater than 85% of all tumors are carcinomas and sarcomas, that is non- lymphohematopoietic tumors which arise in the periphery, outside of orga- nized lymphoid tissues. The immune system, in a manner similar to that seen for many strictly extra-lymphatic self antigens, ignores such tumors at first. Interestingly, experimental carcinogens are frequently also immunosuppres- 2 sive. Other tumors side-step im- mune defenses by down-regulating tumor-specific antigens. For instance, chronic parasitic infec- tions or infection by malaria can result in the development of Burkitt lym- phoma, a B-cell malignancy. Although serum IgE has a short half-life (one to two days), IgE antibodies bound to the Fce receptor on basophils Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license The Pathological Immune Response 109 and mast cells have a half-life of several months and when bound by the spe- cific allergen mediate cellular degranulation and the release of biogenic amines (e. These mediators can influence the smooth musculature, and mainly result in the constriction of the pulmonary- and broncho-postcapillary venules, together with arteriole dilation. The local 2 manifestations of IgE-triggered anaphylaxis include whealing of the skin (ur- ticaria), diarrhea for food allergies, rhinitis or asthma for pollen allergies, or a generalized anaphylactic shock. Examples of allergic dis- eases include local allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, allergic bronchial asth- ma, systemic anaphylactic shock, insect toxin allergies, house dust (mite) and food allergies, urticaria, and angioedemas. Degranulation of mast cells and basophils can be induced by factors other than the cross-linking of specific IgE antibodies. Such factors include the complement factors C3a and C5a, and pharmacological inducers (“pseudo-allergy! Atopia is genetically condi- tioned, with a child exhibiting a 50% risk of developing atopy if both parents are allergic, or a 30% risk if only one parent is allergic. It is likely that increased production of IgG—as opposed to IgE—anti- bodies plays a major role in the success of desensitization. IgE no doubt has an important biological function, probably against ectoparasites, with allergic reactions representing nothing more than an unfortunate side effect of this biological system. Little research has been performed on the nature of the protective function of IgE during parasitic infections (or on the role of eosinophils). However, we do know that mediators released by IgE-triggering of mast cells and basophils cause the smooth intestinal musculature to con- tract, and in this way facilitate the elimination of intestinal parasites. The mediators responsible for such tissue damage are usually components of the complement system, Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license 110 2 Basic Principles of Immunology Table 2. The most important diseases resulting from cytotoxic humoral immune responses are listed in Table 2. Other antibody-induced diseases mediated by antibodies, directed against hor- mones and other cellular self antigens, include Hashimoto thyroiditis (in- duced by anti-thyroglobulin and anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies), perni- cious anemia (anti-intrinsic factor), pemphigus vulgaris (anti-desmosome) Guillain-Barre´ syndrome (ascending paralysis caused by specific myelin auto- antibodies), and scleroderma (involving anti-collagen antibodies). Other immunopathologies involving autoantibodies include transplant rejection as a result of endothelial damage (especially in xenogeneic transplants), and tumor rejection caused by antibodies against tumor-associated antigens present on neoplastic cells (especially relevant for lymphohematopoietic Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license The Pathological Immune Response 111 Table 2. However, in general the detection of autoantibodies does not ne- cessarily correlate with evidence of pathological changes or processes. In fact, our detection methods often measure low-avidity autoantibodies that may have no direct disease-causing effects. As explained earlier (in the discussion of immunological tolerance) such IgG responses cannot be induced without T help. Thus, intensive research is currently focused on those mechanisms by which T cell help for autoreactive B cells is regulated; Table 2. These B-cell epitopes consist of sugar groups present in the mem- branes of red blood cells. The O allele codes only for a basic cell surface structure (H substance) with the terminal sugars galactose and fucose. The A allele adds N-acetylgalactosamine to this basic structure, the B allele adds galactose. This results in epitopes, which are also seen frequently in nature largely as components of intestinal bacteria. In- dividuals who carry the A allele are tolerant to the A-coded epitope, whilst individuals with the B allele are tolerant to the B epitope.
Which complement component is found in both appears during the ﬁrst stage of T-cell the classic and alternative pathways? Eﬀective against virally infected cells infected cells flonase 50 mcg sale, and neither requires antibody to be C discount flonase 50mcg without prescription. What is the name of the process by which are attracted toward an area where they detect a phagocytic cells are attracted to a substance disturbance in the normal functions of body tissues. Phagotaxis that function in opsonization, chemotaxis, and Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental anaphylatoxin formation but do not induce an biological characteristics/Immune system/Cells/1 antiviral state in target cells. Anaphylatoxin formation alternative pathway, C3b binds to an activator on Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental the cell surface. It forms a complex with factor B biological characteristics/Complement/Functions/1 called C3bBb which, like C4b2a3b, can split C5. IgG3 and IgA Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Complement/Activation/1 biological characteristics/Immunoglobulins/Structures/1 13. C Both IgG and IgM are the immunoglobulins that help 1 hour to initiate the activation of the classic complement C. A Complement activity in serum in vitro is destroyed biological characteristics/Complement/Activation/1 by heating the serum at 56°C for 30 min. What is the purpose of C3a, C4a, and C5a, the procedures where complement may interfere with split products of the complement cascade? To bind with speciﬁc membrane receptors of complement activity in the test sample by heat lymphocytes and cause release of cytotoxic inactivation. To cause increased vascular permeability, complement cascade that participate in various contraction of smooth muscle, and release of biological functions such as vasodilation and smooth histamine from basophils muscle contraction. To regulate and degrade membrane cofactor protein after activation by C3 convertase 15. A The Fab (fragment antigen binding) is the region of Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental the immunoglobulin molecule that can bind antigen. Which region of the immunoglobulin molecule consists of a light chain and the V and C regions H H1 can bind antigen? B The composition and structure of the constant H region of the heavy chain determine whether that Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental immunoglobulin will ﬁx complement. The Fc biological characteristics/Immunoglobulins/ fragment (fragment crystallizable) is formed by partial Structures/1 immunoglobulin digestion with papain and includes 16. Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Immunoglobulins/Structures/1 80 Chapter 3 | Immunology 18. Which immunoglobulin appears ﬁrst in the Answers to Questions 18–23 primary immune response? All subclasses of IgG can cross the Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental placenta, but IgG2 crosses more slowly. This process biological characteristics/Immunoglobulin/Function/1 requires recognition of the Fc region of the IgG by placental cells. IgE causes the release of Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental such immune response modiﬁers as histamine and biological characteristics/Immunoglobulins/Functions/1 mediates an allergic immune response. IgE as tumor necrosis factor, which destroy the infected Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental cell and virions. All of the following are functions of chromosome 6 and codes for antigens expressed immunoglobulins except: on the surface of leukocytes and tissues. Facilitating phagocytosis through opsonization products include the antigens that determine C. C Complement components C2 and C4 of the classic pathway and Factor B of the alternative pathway are 25. What molecule on the surface of most T cells T cells may express a γ-δ receptor instead of the recognizes antigen? TcR, consisting of two chains, alpha and beta β-chains of the T-cell receptor are encoded by V genes that undergo rearrangement similar to that Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental observed in immunoglobulin genes. The α-chain biological characteristics/Functions/1 gene consists of V and J segments, similar to an 27. The β-chain consists immunoglobulin molecules in that it: of V, D, and J segments, similar to an immunoglobulin A. The α- and β-chains each have a single secreted C-region gene encoding the constant region of the B. Answers C and D are true for a fetus certain immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotypes but Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental are not true for the T-cell receptor. The name comes from their similarity to the biological characteristics/Innate immune system/ Toll protein in Drosophila. Macrophages produce which of the following Answers to Questions 29–31 proteins during antigen processing? Complement Immunology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological components are produced by a variety of cells but characteristics/Innate immune system/Toll cytokines/2 are not part of the macrophage antigen presentation 30. A portion of an immunoglobulin molecule and can activate T cells without the involvement of complement component C1 an antigen-presenting cell.
Te enzyme used is glucose-6-phosphate the low calibrator (drug concentration equal to dehydrogenase U buy 50mcg flonase with mastercard. Te enzyme donor and acceptor molecules are Administration minimum for a positive test) is used fragments of β-galactosidase as the cutoﬀ flonase 50mcg amex. Te antibody is covalently linked to the enzyme commonly used to measure drugs of abuse. Drug donor conjugated to a fragment of β-galactosidase that is Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ catalytically inactive competes with drug in the Biochemical theory and principles/2 sample for a limited number of antibodies to the drug. The concentration of drug in the sample is directly proportional to the amount of chlorophenol red formed. Which statement is true regarding particle-enhanced Answers to Questions 28–30 turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay methods for therapeutic drugs? Drug concentration is proportional to light immunoassays are homogenous immunoassays scatter frequently used to measure proteins and therapeutic B. Polystyrene-modiﬁed latex unbound conjugate particles conjugated to the drug (particle-bound C. When particle-bound drug binds to antibody, drug) compete with drug in the sample for a limited light scattering is increased number of antibodies. Two antibodies to the drug are needed more of the antibody binds to the particle-bound drug, increasing the turbidity of the reaction. Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ Therefore, light scattering is inversely proportional Biochemical theory and principles/2 to the drug concentration. Selective reaction monitoring potential and radio frequency applied to the rods, Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ the travel of ions will vary depending upon their Chromatography/1 mass to charge (m/z) ratio. Creatinine 5 mg/dL provides suﬃcient speciﬁcity to eliminate potential interfering substances and greater quantitative Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to detect sources of sensitivity. The majority of these situations can be detected by determining temperature (90°F–100°F) pH (4. All of the values listed are within the limits of an acceptable sample with the exception of creatinine. Dry reagent strips are available that test for pH, speciﬁc gravity, creatinine, nitrite, peroxide, pyridinium, and glutaraldehyde. Marijuana detection window also depends on other variables such as dosage, frequency of use, and method Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological sensitivity. Marijuana is stored in fatty tissue and is characteristics/Drugs of abuse/1 metabolized slowly. Which statement about the measurement of several times per week, cannabinoids can be carboxyhemoglobin is true? Treatment with alkaline dithionite is used to users, this extends to months after discontinuation. C The absorbance spectras of oxy- and eliminate interference by oxyhemoglobin carboxyhemoglobin pigments overlap, and D. Carboxyhemoglobin can be measured by bichromatic or multichromatic analysis is required potentiometry in order to accurately measure carboxyhemoglobin. Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ In bichromatic analysis, oxyhemoglobin Carboxyhemoglobin/2 and methemoglobin are converted to 33. Which of the following statements about blood deoxyhemoglobin by the addition of alkaline alcohol measurement is correct? Symptoms of intoxication usually begin when 541:555 nm is directly proportional to the level exceeds 0. Te skin puncture site should be disinfected carboxyhemoglobin is commonly determined with isopropanol from simultaneous absorbance measurements C. Te reference method is based upon enzymatic at 548, 568, and 578 nm, or other wavelength oxidation of ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase combinations, a process called oximetry. Ethanol/2 For this reason, and to avoid interference with the interpretation of chromatograms for volatiles, blood samples are collected after disinfecting the skin site with benzalkonium chloride or other nonalcohol antiseptic. The low boiling point of ethanol permits direct analysis on blood or plasma diluted with water containing 1-propanol or other suitable internal standard. Which specimen is the sample of choice for lead Answers to Questions 34–36 screening? Because lead is rapidly Chemistry/Apply principles of special procedures/ eliminated from plasma, serum or plasma should Lead/1 not be used to test for lead exposure. Which of the following enzymes can be used to to sulfhydryl groups of proteins such as measure plasma or serum salicylate? Toxicology/1 When screening for lead poisoning in children, the method of choice is graphite furnace atomic 36.
Perhaps they are living out their lives as quietly as they can in our organs discount flonase 50 mcg amex, the way mice or ants try to live in our dwellings discount 50mcg flonase with mastercard. Yet, when tapeworm stages are being killed, either spontaneously by your body or with a zapping device, we see an assortment of bacteria and viruses spread through the body, including the common cold. Since each of us has been associated with dozens of animal species in our past, we probably have dozens of varieties of tapeworm stages in us. You can find them without identifying first, though, by listening to their emission frequencies. Their emissions are often extremely weak, possibly due to being encased in a cyst. You may be disappointed not to feel any different after rid- ding yourself of numerous tapeworms and their pathogens. It is easily transmitted from person to person and in less than a year can spread across the planet. However, much that is called “flu” is actually caused by a bacterium, either Salmonella or Shigella. If someone in your family is “catching” a flu, test their saliva for the presence of dairy products, implicating the Salmonellas and Shigellas. Throw away all milk, cheesecakes, buttermilk, cream, butter, yogurt and cottage cheese, deli food and leftovers. Use the sick person as a subject, searching for foods that appear in her white blood cells (or search their saliva sample for the food offender). Obviously, when a contaminated shipment of dairy products arrives in your grocery stores, quite a few people will be consuming it, setting the stage for a “bad flu” that “goes around”. After a seri- ous bout with Salmonellas or Shigellas the body does not com- pletely clear itself of them. Especially if you believe you have “lactose intolerance,” pay attention to Salmonella and Shigella. Re- member, the zapper current does not penetrate the bowel con- tents, which is exactly where Salmonella lives! Besides zapping to clear them from your tissues, you must eliminate them from the bowel by using the Bowel Program (page 546). Lugol’s iodine solution (see Recipes) can quite quickly get rid of Salmonella throughout the body. Use 6 drops (small drops from an eyedropper) in ½ glass of water four times a day. Most fevers, especially “fevers of unknown origin” are due to Salmonellas and Shigellas. Your body may be young and strong enough to kill them but not strong enough to kill an ev- erlasting supply of them coming from dairy foods you eat on a daily basis. Sam Ellis, age 7, had two episodes of severe abdominal pain with fever lasting two weeks. The milk products were bringing him Salmonellas, Shigellas and other bacteria which grew in his intestine to produce pain. Sam also had hookworms, intestinal fluke, and rabbit fluke, probably due to his lowered immunity from the benzene. Notice the bacteria causing the temperature went away by themselves, probably due to the return of his normally strong immune system. It took her six months on our kidney herb recipe to dissolve and pass so many they no longer showed up on X-ray, and to stop making them. To stop her Salmonella attacks she had to raise her immunity besides boiling all dairy products. Moldy foods (pasta) and lunch meats (benzopyrenes) were the source of liver toxicity. Each new Salmonella attack immediately invaded the liver so a vicious cycle was set up. Perhaps in two years the liver will have recovered enough to kill Salmonella that enter it, but she is not taking any chances till then. Although Kristen was eating food polluted with both Sal- monellas and Shigellas she only “picked up” Salmonella, never Shigella! It is caused by fluke parasites reaching the brain or spinal cord and attempting to multiply there. All meats are a source of fluke parasite stages unless canned or very well cooked. Pets and family members are undoubtedly carriers of the same flukes, although they do not show the same symptoms. The most important question you must be able to answer is why did these parasites enter your brain and spinal cord?
9 of 10 - Review by M. Grok
Votes: 187 votes
Total customer reviews: 187