By Y. Shawn. Roanoke College.
Forfood-borneinfec- The purpose of surveillance tions buy alendronate 35mg mastercard, food histories and food preferences may berecorded buy generic alendronate 70mg line. Forinfectionsthatarespreadfrom Surveillanceallowsindividualcasesofinfec- person to person, the names and addresses of tiontobeidentifiedsothatactioncanbetaken contacts may be requested, and for infections to prevent spread. For some infections where signal an outbreak, which may need further intervention is required, additional data are 272 Services and organisations collected. These cases coccal infection the names of close household can only be detected by serological surveys. Casesthatareseenbyadoctor a need to find out more about the epidemi- may be reported via a primary care reporting ology, an enhanced data set may be collected schemeorstatutorynotificationsystem. Cases or there may be a request for laboratory data that are investigated by laboratory tests may to confirm the diagnosis. An example of this is be detected by a laboratory reporting system, theserologicalconfirmationofclinicalreports and those that are admitted to hospital will be of measles, mumps and rubella using salivary counted by a hospital information system. Datamayalsobe lance system, it is important to ensure that the downloaded from databases used for patient mostappropriatedatasourceisutilised. In database then allows analysis of the data and England and Wales the main routine data col- the production of summary statistics includ- lecting systems are as follows. Thispermitstheepi- Statutory notications of infectious demiology of the infection to be described in disease terms of person, place and time and the de- tection of clusters of outbreaks. Local data can The system for each European country is de- be shared and merged to produce data sets at scribed in the relevant chapter of Section 5. The current list of notifiable infectious dis- Interpretation of the data and summary eases in England and Wales is shown in Table statistics leads to information on trends and 4. Anycliniciansuspectingthesediagnoses risk factors, which are disseminated so that isrequiredtonotifytheproperofficerofthelo- action can be taken. Statutory notifications are an impor- Feedback to local data providers is impor- tantwayofmonitoringtrendsininfectiousdis- tant. Itdemonstratestheusefulnessofthedata ease,suchaswhoopingcough,wherethediag- and creates reliance on it. If the laboratory Sources of surveillance data is unable to carry out the work, then speci- mens are forwarded to a suitable reference lab- A number of data sources are available for oratory. Many results of clinical significance are notified to Surveillance of communicable disease 273 Table 4. This should be covered tronic reporting is in use but reporting by by a written policy. Death certication and registration Trends are difficult to interpret, since the data Mortalitydataoncommunicablediseaseareof are sensitive to changes in testing or report- limitedusesincecommunicablediseasesrarely ing by laboratories. Data ing typing or they may use multiple sources on calls about selected symptoms are collated of data. Hospital data Other sources of data Data are available from hospital information TheMedicalOfficersofSchoolsAssociationre- systems on infectious diseases that result in ports illness in children in approximately 55 admissiontohospital. Thisisusefulinthesurveillanceofin- admission to hospital, although data are often fluenza. Managing infectious disease incidents and outbreaks 275 The British Paediatric Surveillance Unit of A single case of a particular rare or serious the College of Paediatrics and Child Health disease such as diphtheria, rabies, viral haem- co-ordinates surveillance of uncommon pae- orrhagic fever or polio. A reporting card is sent A suspected, anticipated or actual event in- each month to consultant paediatricians in volving exposure to an infectious agent (e. An in- der incident, failure of decontamination pro- vestigator then contacts the paediatrician for cedures). Conditions of infective Actual or potential microbial or chemical originthatareundersurveillanceincludecon- contamination of food or water. The control of infection in childhood, complications of vari- an outbreak of infectious disease depends on cella, invasive fungal infection in low-birth- early detection followed by a rapid structured weight infants and neonatal herpes simplex investigation to uncover the source of infec- virus infection. Incident management may be more effective if an in- cident control room is established. In circum- disease incidents and stances where there are likely to be significant outbreaks numbers of enquiries from members of the publicfor example during a look-back exer- cise following identification of a healthcare An infectious disease incident may be defined worker infected with hepatitis Ba dedicated in one of the following ways: telephone helpline may be established. Most calls arrive in the first few days, so the maximum number of lines should be available at the start of an incident; excess lines can then be closed down Calls can first be screened by an experienced person who then allocates them appropriately- or calls can be taken by a first-line person, who passes on difficult calls Four-hour shifts are generally used, some may be able to do two shifts Asupervisorisneededforeachshifttodealwithbriefingsandadministrationandcoverstaff breaks. These are out- route of transmission to prevent further cases, breaks affecting members of more than one to prevent similar outbreaks in the future, to private residence or residents of an institu- describe new diseases and learn more about tion. They are distinct from family outbreaks, known diseases, to teach and learn epidemi- which affect members of the same private res- ology, to address public concern and to gather idence only. It may result from increased clinical or laboratory detection of cases, changes in re- Detection porting patterns, changes in the size of the at-risk population or false-positive laboratory Anoutbreakwillberecognisedbycasereports, tests. These would include the elderly, the home- had attended the same christening party were ad- lessandthosethathavemigratedfromareasofthe mittedtotheinfectiousdiseasewardatalocalhos- world where the incidence of tuberculosis remains pital. An outbreak of gastroenteritis resulting from An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis was due to Salmonella panama infection due to the sale of false-positive laboratory tests. The microbiology contaminated cold meats from a market stall was technician mistook fat globules for oocysts of detected when the local public health laboratory the protozoon Cryptosporidium parvum in faecal isolated this unusual organism from several faecal smears. Atanearlystageitisimportantto environmental health officers questioned several produce and adhere to a clear case definition.
Hypothalamic proopiome- lanocortin promoter methylation becomes altered by early overfeeding: an epigenetic model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome cheap 70 mg alendronate with amex. Differential epigenomic and transcriptomic responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue between low and high responders to caloric restriction alendronate 35mg with amex. Timing is everything: The when and how of environmentally induced changes in the epigenome of animals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and envi- ronmental signals. Methylation of the estrogen receptor-alpha gene promoter is selectively increased in proliferating human aortic smooth muscle cells. Adult phenotype in the mouse can be affected 293 by epigenetic events in the early embryo. Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Maternal diet and aging alter the epigenetic control of a promoter-enhancer interaction at the Hnf4a gene in rat pancreatic islets. Cytosine methylation dysregu- lation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction. Developmental origins of metabolic disease: life course and intergenerational perspectives. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Comparing maternal and paternal intergenerational transmission of obesity risk in a large population-based sample. Metabolic plasticity during mammalian development is directionally dependent on early nutritional status. Developmental and epigenetic pathways to obesity: an evolutionary- developmental perspective. Early development of visceral fat excess after spontaneous catch-up growth in children with low birth weight. Insulin resistance early in adulthood in subjects born with intrauterine growth retardation. The fetal insulin hypothesis: an alternative explanation of the association of low birthweight with diabetes and vascular disease. Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and 294 hypertension and postnatal amplication by hypercaloric nutrition. Prenatal inuences on susceptibility to diet-induced obesity are mediated by altered neuroendocrine gene expression. Epigenetic Gene Promoter Methylation at Birth Is Associated With Childs Later Adiposity. Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. Programming of the appetite-regulating neural network: a link between maternal over- nutrition and the programming of obesity? Leptin gene expression in human preadipocytes is switched on by maturation-induced demethylation of distinct CpGs in its proximal promoter. High fat diet-induced obesity modies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in rats. Human leptin tissue distribution, but not weight loss-dependent change in expression, is associated with methylation of its promoter. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Stochastic epigenetic vari- ation as a driving force of development, evolutionary adaptation, and disease. Paternally induced transgenerational envi- ronmental reprogramming of metabolic gene expression in mammals. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs beta-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring. Personalized epigenomic signatures that are stable over time and covary with body mass index. Increased expression of inammation- related genes in cultured preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells from obese compared with non-obese Pima Indians. Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Epigenetic epidemiology of common complex disease: prospects for prediction, prevention, and treatment. Association of lipidome remodeling in the adipocyte membrane with acquired obesity in humans. Chromatin and heritability: how epigenetic studies can complement genetic approaches.
The long-term effects of maternal behavior on the stress responsiveness and behavior of the offspring during adulthood are well documented in animal models discount alendronate 70 mg online, and these experimental ndings have been extended to humans by identifying an association between early-life adversity and epigenetic marks in adult life [133 buy cheap alendronate 70mg on line,134]. To test the hypothesis that epigenetic differences in critical loci in the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of suicide, McGowan et al. Suicide subjects were selected for a history of early childhood neglect/abuse, which is associated with decreased hippo- campal volume and cognitive impairments. The glucocorticoid receptor 1F expression was signicantly lower in samples from suicide victims with a history of childhood abuse compared with suicide victims without childhood abuse or controls. It is known that cesarean section can cause more severe stress in newborn infants compared with that of those born by vaginal delivery, who adapt to the new conditions better. To study whether the mode of delivery affects epigenetic activity in newborn infants, Schlinzig et al. The exposure to excess glucocorticoids in early life can permanently alter tissue glucocorticoid signaling, and these effects may have short-term adaptive benets but increase the risk of later disease . Currently, multiple courses of synthetic glucocorticoids are recommended for various condi- tions. However, despite the benecial therapeutic effect of antenatally administered glucocorticoids, their prenatal administration can result in transgenerational effects with respect to the risk of developing several metabolic and cardio- vascular disorders in later life which implies that these epigenetic effects can persist across generations [132,136]. Epidemiological data offer some evidence that paternal alcohol consumption can affect birth weight, congenital heart defects, and mild cognitive impairments [137e139]. A substantial amount of data have been accumulated to support the role of environmentally induced epigenetic remodeling during gametogenesis and after conception as a key mechan- ism for the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure that persist into adulthood . Three developmental periods are particularly vulnerable: preconception, preimplantation, and gastrulation. A wide range of fetal abnormalities and birth defects have been repeatedly reported in animals and humans after preconceptional alcohol exposure. Children born to mothers who smoke are at an increased risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes [143,144]. Maternal smoking may be involved in fetal programming , and in utero tobacco exposure was shown to be associated with epigenetic changes in the offspring . Differential methylation of CpG loci in eight genes was identied through the screen. Such mechanisms could, in turn, lead to modi- cations in both development and plasticity of the brain exposed in utero to maternal cigarette 558 smoking. Importantly, these effects can be epigenetically transmitted to the next generation [155,156]. Importantly, the prostate seems to be particularly sensitive to these endocrine disruptors during the critical developmental windows including in utero and neonatal time points as well as during puberty. There is also convincing evidence that prenatal environmental exposures can inuence the risk for subsequent asthma. Martino and Prescott  examined the epigenetic regulation of immune development and the early immune proles that contribute to allergic risk. They generally include a stage of embryo culture that precisely coincides with zygotic epigenetic resetting. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner, i. Imprinted expression is a clear example of epigenetic inheritance, because genetically identical sequences are differentially transcribed depending on the sex of the parent from which the gene origin- ates . Most imprinted genes contain differentially methylated regions, where the methylation state of the parental alleles differs . This variation allows for differential regulation of these alleles dependent on parental origin of the allele and leads to prefer- ential expression of a specic allele, depending on its parental origin . The underlying mechanisms by which culture media induce abnormal epigenetic modications are still not clear but it has been suggested that embryonic developmental timing can be disturbed Epigenetics in Human Disease by the synthetic media and that this interferes with epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression . Among them, BeckwitheWiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome are the most extensively studied . Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was shown to increase the risk of Angelman syndrome and some imprinting defects [171,172]. Although these studies examined only few cases, almost every case showed loss of methylation at imprinting control regions rather than the genetic defects generally responsible for these syndromes. In these studies, it has been highlighted as the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the link between nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic environment early in life and lifelong health outcomes. Over recent years, there have been conducted numerous animal studies and limited human studies aimed at understanding the specic epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental programming of later life pathology and aging. Epigenetics has substantial potential for developing biological markers to predict which exposures would put exposed subjects at risk and which individuals will be more susceptible to develop disease. In human studies, this will require the use of highly sensitive laboratory methods, so that epigenetic alterations can be detected well ahead of disease diagnosis . Given the reversibility of epigenetic modications, the understanding of epigenetic mechan- isms may represent a promising novel therapeutic target for prevention or reversion of human age-related disorders and healthy life extension. These therapeutic strategies may include changes in nutrition and lifestyle as well as pharmacological treatments. However, all these drug candidates are very unspecic and, therefore, can cause large-scale epigenetic deregulation.
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