By T. Grompel. William Paterson University. 2018.
Murmurs should be listened for at all areas of the anterior chest buy silvitra 120mg with visa, axilla order silvitra 120 mg, and back and described in terms of intensity (grades 1–6), presence in systole, diastole, or continuous, timing within the interval (early, mid, late, pan), contour (ejection or regurgitant), quality (vibratory, harsh, blowing), location on chest best heard and radiated to, and response to maneuvers, such as standing or squatting. Intensity grade 1 implies a very soft murmur only heard when paying careful attention, grade 2 is easily heard but not loud, grade 3 is loud but without a thrill, grade 4 is loud with a thrill, grade 5 is heard with the stethoscope partly off the chest, and grade 6 is heard with the stethoscope completely off the chest. Whereas, innocent murmurs can be heard in 70–90% of older infants and children on at least one visit (Table 1. In the older infant or child, innocent murmurs are often more obvious during febrile illnesses or other states of increased cardiac output. Innocent murmurs are usually short, systolic ejection murmurs, intensity grade 1 or 2, not associated with any other abnormal cardiac findings. Innocent murmurs should decrease in intensity or disappear in the standing position due to the reduced volume of blood returning to the heart and thus eliminating a “nor- mal” murmur. The vibratory or musical “Still’s” murmur is very common in young children, often heard best at the left lower sternal border to the apex (Table 1. Pulmonary flow murmurs are soft, medium frequency, blowing murmurs heard best at the left mid to upper sternal border. The venous hum is a continuous murmur and the only innocent murmur heard in diastole. The sound is due to blood flowing down the neck veins into the innominate vein and superior vena cava and is louder in diastole and with inspiration. It is usually not heard in the supine position but is easily heard in the sitting position under the right or left clavicle in most 3–5-year- old children, often accentuated by turning the head to one side or the other and extinguished by compressing the ipsilateral neck veins. Closure of the atrioventricular valves contributes to the first heart sound which tends to be single. Aortic and pulmonary valves open soon after S1; however, this is usually inaudible in the normal heart. Flow across the aortic and pulmonary valves follows, which is again usually inaudible in the normal heart. The aortic valve closes first, followed by the pulmonary valve; the delay in closure of the pulmonary valve gives the “splitting” character of the second heart sound. Diastole, similar to systole is quiet; during diastole, blood flows through the tricuspid and mitral valves into the right and left ventricles. In atrial septal defect, increased blood flow across the pulmonary valve causes a systolic ejection murmur along the left upper sternal border. Severe anemia with increase in blood volume to compensate for decreased oxygen carrying capacity causes turbulence of blood flow and consequently a murmur across both aortic and pulmonary valves. These mur- murs are distinguished from those caused by stenosis of the pulmonary or aortic valves by lack of a systolic ejection click heard just before the systolic murmurs. These murmurs are loudest over the right upper sternal borders in aortic stenosis and the left upper sternal border in pulmonary stenosis. The systolic ejection click is caused by the snap sound of opening of abnormal pulmonary or aortic valves. Backward flow of blood into the right or left ventricles due to valve regurgitation will cause an early diastolic murmur. Pulmonary regurgitation is typically inaudible due to low pressures in the right heart and if heard may indicate pulmonary hypertension. Excessive blood flow across the tricuspid valve, such as with atrial septal defect, or across the mitral valve such as with patent ductus arteriosus will cause a mid-diastolic murmur heard over the left lower sternal border in patients with atrial septal defect and at the apex in patients with patent ductus arteriosus Pathologic murmurs can be at any intensity level, though louder murmurs (>grade 2) are more likely to be pathologic. Holo (or pan) systolic murmurs and mid to late systolic regurgitation murmurs are pathologic, and usually indicate either ventricular septal defects or mitral or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Harsh quality (wide frequency 1 Cardiac History and Physical Examination 11 Table 1. Early diastolic decrescendo murmurs are indicative or aortic or pulmonary insuffi- ciency and are usually best heard at the mid to upper sternal border, especially with the patient sitting and leaning forward. Mitral stenosis usually results in a low frequency mid to late diastolic murmur, often with crescendo at end diastole, best heard at the apex with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position. The presence of an abnormal additional finding, such as an abnormal S2 or a click, makes a murmur much more likely to be pathologic than innocent. Images as well as movie/audio clips of heart sounds and murmurs reviewed in this chapter can be found through the internet at: (http://www. Heart Disease Presenting in Infancy Most serious congenital heart defects are present in the neonatal period. Often a syndromic appearance may raise suspicion of specific heart defects (trisomy 21 and A–V canal defect, trisomy 18 and ventricular septal defect, Noonan’s syndrome and 12 W. Murmur should disappear by 8 weeks of age, otherwise pathologic peripheral pulmonary stenosis should be considered such as with William, Allagile, Noonan syndromes, or secondary to congenital Rubella Venous hum Features: continuous, soft murmur Location: over either side of the neck Cause: flow in normal veins Mammary soufflé Features: systolic flow murmur Location: over breasts in females, during initial growth of breast (puberty) or during pregnancy Cause: rapid growth of breast tissue with increase in blood flow pulmonary stenosis, William’s syndrome and supravalvar aortic stenosis, DiGeorge syndrome, and interrupted aortic arch or truncus arteriosus). Left Heart Obstructive Disease With critical left heart obstructive disease (coarctation of the aorta, critical aortic stenosis, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and interrupted aortic arch), symptoms and signs of obstruction to systemic flow begin with the onset of ductus arteriosus closure. Tachypnea and poor feeding are the most common symptoms, and result from metabolic acidosis and pulmonary venous hypertension. Prior to ductal closure a difference in pulse oximetry between the upper (higher saturation) and lower (lower saturation) maybe the only clue to the diagnosis of critical coarctation or interrupted aortic arch and may be difficult or impossible to distinguish from persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn without echocardiography. After 1 Cardiac History and Physical Examination 13 ductal closure, the pulse oximetry differential is replaced by a difference in pulse intensity and blood pressure between the upper (higher systolic pressure) and lower (lower pressure) extremities.
Septicemia and gangrenous dermatitis occur in older birds effective 120mg silvitra, following secondary bacterial infection discount silvitra 120mg with mastercard. Either vaccination or natural exposure will confer immunity to progeny through maternal antibody transfer. Wing of 14-day old broiler showing edema, subcutaneous hemorrhage, and transudate due to chick anemia virus. Pale bone marrow indicating immunosuppression associated with chick anemia virus or mycotoxicosis. The lentogenic form is responsible for erosive losses in broilers including lowered gain and feed conversion efficiency and elevated mortality and condemnation. The severity and financial impact depends on climatic and management stress and intercurrent exposure to pathogenic E. The cost and consequences (respiratory stress) of vaccination are significant, especially during winter and following immunosuppression. Infection occurs either by the inhalation of virus in aerosol form or ingestion of contaminated feed or litter. In susceptible commercial egg production flocks and breeders, peracute cessation of production occurs with the presence of shell-less eggs due to premature oviposition. Mesogenic Variable to high morbidity is evident in an exposed flock which will show moderate mortality characterized by nervous and respiratory signs. An acute drop in egg production occurs in susceptible mature flocks with the presence of shell-less eggs. Mild to inapparent respiratory signs are noted but negligible mortality occurs in uncomplicated cases. Recovered flocks show septicemia and airsacculitis due to secondary infection with E. Identification and characterization of the virus by a suitably equipped laboratory is the usual confirmatory procedure. Conventional programs: • Lentogenic infection of broilers can be prevented by day old administration of aerosol or eye drop vaccine using Hitchner B1 with subsequent boosters in drinking water or by the aerosol route. An optional 45 week multivalent oil inactivated emulsion may be administered to boost maternal antibody transfer, depending on antibody titer of the flock, risk of exposure, and other factors relating to the operation. A variety of vaccination programs can be followed depending on the risk of infection, virulence of agent, management system, and economic factors. Hitchner or LaSota vaccine is administered to broilers by the aerosol route at 10 day intervals thereafter. This expedient is only justified if birds have previously received one or more live attenuated lentogenic vaccines. Hemorrhage of the mucosa of the proventriculitis due to velogenic Newcastle disease. Acute onset of ocular discharge accompanied by high flock morbidity may denote infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, coryza, or mild avian influenza. Indirect contact through dust-laden vehicles, or contaminated personnel or equipment. Mild to severe cases show acute onset with respiratory signs (snicking and gurgling), conjunctivitis and swollen heads. In severe cases, birds show expectoration of blood accompanied by cyanosis of the head due to dyspnoea. Proportionally more severe lesions occur with pathogenic virus strains which produce severe hemorrhagic tracheitis with the presence of blood clots. Aggregations of desquamated epithelium and blood clots may obstruct the glottis resulting in asphyxiation. Effective protection can be achieved using egg-embryo propagated vaccine administered in drinking water to broilers, immature breeders and commercial pullets at 14 - 20 days. The spray route is less effective especially with tissue-culture propagated vaccines. Commercial egg pullets and breeders are vaccinated at 6-10 weeks of age by administration of tissue-culture origin modified live virus which has a lower potential for reversion to virulence than chick-embryo origin vaccine virus. It is impossible to differentiate among the causes of respiratory diseases based on clinical observation only. Detailed laboratory evaluation with identification of pathogens is required to confirm a diagnosis. Caseous cast in the proximal trachea adjacent to the glottis is characteristic of laryngotracheitis but should be differentiated from diphtheritic pox infection and avian influenza. Tracheitis which may be due to a range of viral agents including laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza Newcastle disease or adenovirus. Avian influenza of low pathogenicity is an erosive disease reducing liveability and quality of either broilers or eggs and exacerbating secondary bacterial infection. Influenza adversely affects the financial return from flocks and a decline in quality of broiler carcasses or table-eggs following infection. The virus is relatively resistant to environmental exposure and can infect birds placed in imperfectly decontaminated units housing a previously infected flock.
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As these muscles This is how the middle ear functions as the have a latent period of contraction of 10 msec purchase silvitra 120 mg fast delivery, sound pressure transformation mechanism these do not provide protection from sudden and helps in impedance matching of the explosive sounds 120mg silvitra amex. The reconstruction of the middle ear trans- Eustachian tube helps in aeration of the former mechanism and round window middle ear. Normally, an aerated middle ear protection form the principles of tympa- cavity is essential for proper functioning of the noplasty. Besides air conduction, the sounds are also The eustachian tube helps in equalisation transmitted through bone, which may be due of pressure in the middle ear. As the atmos- to vibration of the skull by the subject’s own pheric pressure decreases, as during ascent in sound waves, the free-field sound energy or an aeroplane, the air in the middle ear by application of the vibrating body directly cavity gets absorbed and a negative pressure to the skull. This can The stimulation of the sense organs by the be equalised by frequent swallowing move- bone conducted sounds occurs as a result of ments which open the eustachian tubes. Physiology of the Ear 25 Functions of the Mastoid Cellular System The function of cellularity of the mastoid is not very clear. It may be insulating chambers protecting the labyrinth from temperature variations. Volley theory (Wever’s theory): This theory The organ of Corti gets stimulated and results is a combination of place and telephonic in generation of cochlear microphonics. The low tones displace the whole of the basilar Pitch Discrimination in the Cochlea membrane and are represented in the There are different theories of hearing which auditory nerve by nerve fibre responses. Place theory (Helmholtz’s theory): According to this theory, the perception of pitch The vestibular system plays a role in main- depends on movements of the point of taining equilibrium in addition to visual and maximum displacement of the basilar proprioceptive mechanisms. Thus each pitch would cause Semicircular canals The canals are sensitive to vibration of its own place on the basilar changes of angular velocity. During angular theory assumes that pitch discrimination acceleration or deceleration, the endolymph depends upon the rate of firing of the due to its inertia lags behind and thereby action potentials in the individual nerve exerts pressure within the ampulla. As soon fibres, the frequency analysis is then done as the constant velocity of rotation is attained by the central nervous system. Once angular acceleration or decele- statoconial membrane, which is responsible ration ceases, the endolymph being still in for static labyrinthine reflexes resulting from motion, stimulates the crista ampullaris but centrifugal forces and also responsible for in the reverse direction. Utricle The hair cells of the utricular macula There is a constant discharge from the are stimulated by the gravitational pull on vestibular labyrinth conducted through the Physiology of the Ear 27 eighth nerve to the central vestibular connec- of the whole, which can still be elicited for tions which keep the cortex informed about several hours after total oxygen depriva- the changes in position and posture of head tion or death. This means that a sound wave as such does not potentials of the individual nerve fibres. There are several forms of sound distortion to which the ear, in common with other acous- Masking tic devices, is subjected. These are as follows: The masking of a tone by a louder sound of Frequency distortion The “preferential” trans- approximately similar frequency is called mission of certain frequencies as compared to ipsilateral direct masking. This mechanism is others occurs when the secondary system into independent of the central nervous system. Both simple and comp- mingling of the central connection of the two lex wave motions can be affected by ampli- ears. History of drug intake: Drugs like salicylates, aminoglycosides, quinine and cytotoxic Deafness or hearing impairment is an impor- drugs are known to be ototoxic. The various points to be noted are roundings are more prone to hearing the following. Duration: Deafness which is present since hearing if he or she has a hearing loss which birth may be due to genetic causes, due to can be helped by medical and/or by surgical prenatal intake of drugs like thalidomide treatment, or has learned speaking naturally or if the mother suffered from rubella as a partially hearing child or adult. Prolonged labour and tation measures like providing amplification otitis media, measles, mumps and menin- (hearing aid), and speech and auditory train- gitis during infancy are also important ings can help in restoring verbal communi- causes of deafness. Provided the treatment is started early Deafness of recent origin in adults may in life, such a person can be educated with be due to traumatic, inflammatory, neo- normal hearing children and in later life will plastic, vascular and metabolic causes. In has a severe hearing loss with little or no cochlear lesions patients do not hear at residual hearing. Such a person’s hearing is conversational intensity but get irritated by nonfunctional for ordinary purposes of life. When measured with an audiometer the Fluctuant deafness occurs in secretory hearing loss for speech is 82 dB or worse otitis media and Ménière’s disease. A deaf 30 Textbook of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases person should be educated and trained in a may also be due to the infections of the exter- deaf school. The discharge may be serous, mucoid, mucopurulent, purulent, Tinnitus blood stained, or watery. Tinnitus is first important symptom of sali- Serous discharge is found in allergic otitis cylate poisoning. Mucopurulent discharge is com- periodic episodes of deafness and vertigo monly due to benign chronic suppurative constitutes Ménière’s syndrome. Wax in the otitis media and the extension of the disease external auditory canal, aero-otitis media, process to mastoid air cells. A purulent dis- infections of the ear, acoustic trauma and charge usually signifies an underlying bone otosclerosis may be associated with tinnitus. This type in ears and tinnitus are found in secretory of discharge may occur in otitis externa also. Blood-stained discharge is a feature of Vertigo malignancy, glomus jugular and granulations.
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