By Z. Kurt. McKendree College. 2018.
There is also some evidence that cognitive behavioural group work focused on risk reduction buy cheap bupron sr 150mg on-line, sexual negotiation and communication skills training (and rehearsal generic bupron sr 150mg line, for instance through role play) can be effective. Interventions delivered at a community level, particularly peer- led can be effective in influencing the sexual risk behaviours for commercial sex workers. The review concludes that current evidence suggests that voluntary counselling and testing should be targeted only at high risk individuals who are likely to be positive. Formative research can be useful in developing programmes which are appropriate to the target population in terms of age, gender, sexual experience and culture Make use of peer educators Place emphasis on promoting condom use, rather than abstinence. Telling people not to have sex is unlikely to be an effective intervention Are of appropriate duration. If undertaken in a planned way sexual history taking is an essential tool for risk assessment for targeted sexual health promotion work and for partner notification when indicated. While sexual health promotion activity is usually recorded in clinic notes, there is a need to develop a standard format for recording sexual histories, including sections on discussing prevention for both nurses and health advisers. In order to promote sexual health effectively a multi disciplinary team needs to: Recognise the importance of sexual health promotion Develop a shared philosophy Seek to develop trusting, non judgmental and respectful relationships with service users Be pro-active when appropriate Aim to develop consistency in messages and information regarding sexual health Have a clear understanding of the different roles within the team and refer appropriately Respect and value each others skills and experience Be keen to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes Recognise diversity amongst individuals and communities and aim to make the service accessible to all service users The key to developing health promotion within the clinic is the ability to work effectively as a multidisciplinary team. In order to achieve this, it is important that team roles in health promotion are clearly defined and co-ordinated and the different skills within the team are valued and maximised. If roles are not clearly defined there is a danger of either overloading the patient with advice or missing out health promotion altogether. Clear documentation of health promotion related discussion means that duplication can be avoided and team members can build on previous interventions. If members of the team are giving different messages about sexual health, for example risks of transmission attached to sexual activities patients will be confused and less likely to follow any advice given. While all clinic attendees are ideally given the opportunity to discuss prevention and related issues, it is important that team members use their skills and experience to assess the appropriateness, relevance and timing of any intervention. To fulfil this role doctors: Identify how they will fit explicit sexual health promotion routinely into their role Recognise that patients presenting with an infection or potential infection may be particularly receptive to sexual health promotion advice and harm reduction messages. The level of health promotion activity undertaken by the nurses will partly depend on acceptance within the clinic that this is part of their role. Issues of the amount of time the nurses spend with the patient and the lack of privacy for discussion also need to be taken into account. The health adviser will discuss safer sex with all patients and offer more in depth prevention work, where this is appropriate. It is therefore important that referral to health advisers be consistent and includes referral for in-depth prevention work based on a clear and consistent assessment process by other team members. Guidelines and protocols on which patients are referred to the health adviser need to be in place in all clinics with the aim of ensuring that those with particular issues around prevention receive the opportunity for in depth discussion, counselling and support. Particular consideration needs to be given to including referrals to health adviser that are specifically for prevention counselling, for example, exploring harm minimisation strategies. This will have an impact on the ability of health advisers to develop innovative and effective ways of working with different patient groups, including community outreach and support, but this also has clear resource implications. Receptionists While the reception team does not have a direct role in sexual health promotion, their importance as the first point of contact with the service ought not be underestimated. These may include the need for each clinic to: Have a clear protocol for clinic staff working with gay/bisexual men. Practitioners will benefit from having a good range of communication skills and techniques they can employ to work effectively with a variety of patients. Frameworks around the use of counselling skills The term counselling skills does not have a single definition, which is universally accepted. Although the distinction is not a clear one, because the term counselling skills contains elements of these other two activities, it has its own place in the continuum between them. In addition, members of the team (generally health advisers) with specific training and expertise would be able to offer (generally short-term) counselling sessions, where appropriate. One does not need a particular theoretical perspective in order to use counselling skills effectively, however what underpins the practice of both counselling and the use of counselling skills is: Confidentiality Respect for the patient s own perception of their experience Support for the person in finding their own solution to their difficulties In a health promotion context counselling skills can be used alongside other forms of interaction such as information and advice giving. A person centred approach to counselling 18 skills would generally be informed by Rogers three conditions for successful counselling. Both of these approaches are outlined in a number of books focusing on counselling/counselling skills, including Counselling: The Trainer s Handbook Francesca 20 Inskipp (1986) 21 Heron s Six-Category Intervention Analysis (Heron 1986) is a framework for identifying a range of possible interventions, and has often been used to explore the use of counselling skills within a health setting. As well as outlining the key points of this framework, nd 22 Counselling Skills For Health Professionals by Philip Burnard (2 edition 1994) offers a general overview of the use of counselling skills in a health setting including information about a range of theoretical stances. This model may be useful for doctors and nurses who are working within severe time constraints. This model offers the possibility of a routine structure in a consultation, even when taking a more patient centred approach. While expert information still has an important role to play it cannot stand-alone. The context of a person s life and relationships needs to be investigated and acknowledged if they are to be helped to develop their own personal strategy for sexual health. This model of sexual health promotion therefore takes less of a top- down approach than the medical model.
The lesions are vesicular and care workers; can be mistaken for a bacterial pustular order bupron sr 150mg line, with local erythema discount bupron sr 150 mg amex, pain, and drainage. It may progress in a fulminant man- one of the most common causes of blindness in the ner with frank hemorrhagic necrosis of the affected United States. Dendritic corneal has been reduced, but remains above 15%, and most lesions are easily visualized by uorescein staining (See survivors exhibit long-term cognitive impairment. Involvement of deeper struc- Widespread cutaneous dissemination (eczema her- tures or corneal scarring can lead to blindness. The disease is characterized by fever, altered mentation, and focal neurologic signs. The clinical diagnosis of labial or genital herpes is Personality changes and bizarre behavior are common, usually not difcult; however, the typical vesicle on an and many patients experience seizures. The disease erythematous base, the dewdrop on a rose petal, is process typically affects the temporal lobe and is not always present. The diagnosis is made clinically, or with based on socioeconomic factors, but no clear link to immunofluorescence and viral culture. In the United States, from encephalitis,a polymerase chain reaction test of 40% to 80% of children are infected by puberty. Primary skin infections can be treated with acy- caretakers of young children may have a risk of infection clovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir. Treatment of recurrent episodes is more contro- occur by contact with almost any human body uid or versial. Use high-dose, intravenous acyclovir for encep- spread by sexual contact and by blood transfusion and halitis or disseminated disease. Staining of ical, but primary infection in the normal host occasion- lesion scrapings and examination for giant cells (the ally results in a mononucleosis syndrome. The most reliable test is a rise in requires high-dose intravenous acyclovir therapy. A cohort study causes retinitis,hepatitis,pneumonitis,gastroin- among university students: identication of risk factors for testinal disease (gastric and esophageal ulcers Epstein Barr virus seroconversion and infectious mononucleosis. Risk and predic- The immunocompromised patient should be tors of fatigue after infectious mononucleosis in a large primary- treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Spontaneous resolution, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome even after a lengthy illness, is almost invariable. Epidemiological and genetic corticosteroids may be used for the same autoimmune or analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Incidence effect of airline travel on inter-regional inuenza spread in the of herpes zoster, before and after varicella-vaccination-associated United States. Infections in the 16 Immunocompromised Host Time Recommended to Complete: 1 day Reuben Ramphal, M. Which pathogens are responsible for infection in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity? Immune system failures Rapid evaluation and empiric antibiotics are result in incidences of infection not only by normally required in the febrile neutropenic patient. High- accepted human pathogens and human saprophytes, grade life-threatening bacteremia is common. Many of the ideas discussed in this chapter with and organ failure have given rise to a population of the exception of the other major defect that is seen fol- patients now commonly called immunocompromised lowing cytotoxic chemotherapy, loss of mucosal barriers hosts. Addition- should be kept in mind is the patient with an immun- ally, patients in whom immunosuppressive agents and odeciency syndrome that has a genetic basis. The management of these patients is best han- required to maintain organ function or to control dled in the pediatric literature. Thus, in the truest sense, the population under dis- A full understanding of these classifications and cussion should be called the medically or iatrogenically their application to specic populations will provide a compromised host, because the compromise results firm foundation for managing the immunocompro- mainly from treatment of an underlying disease. Patients whose major defect is caused by cytotoxic of chemotherapy, his absolute neutrophil count was therapy or irradiation, or both, with the major defect 0/mm3. One day later, he developed a fever and was being neutropenia and mucosal barrier damage started on ticarcillin-clavulinate and gentamicin. Patients whose major defect is suppression of cell- the next 48 hours, he remained febrile, and he devel- mediated immunity resulting from the administra- oped a black skin lesion (2 2 cm) on his right thigh. Four of four blood cultures drawn It is absolutely essential that these distinctions be at the onset of fever were positive for Pseudomonas made at the initial patient encounter, because important aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumo- decisions about diagnostic approaches and the need niae. His antibiotic regimen was switched to cef- for immediate empiric therapy and its type have to be tazidime and gentamicin. Some defects are tem- Neutropenia is dened as an absolute neutrophil count below 500/mm3. It is often accompanied by porary, until repair mechanisms return to full function- ality (for example, the bone marrow recovers, mucosal mucosal damage.
The murmur of aortic stenosis is a harsh buy cheap bupron sr 150 mg on line, throat-clearing systolic ejection murmur order bupron sr 150 mg, best heard at the right upper sternal border. Coarctation of the aorta results in systolic hypertension in the upper extremities, decreased pulses and blood pressure in the lower extrem- ities, and a systolic ejection murmur best heard over the left back or left axilla. The patient should be placed in the left lateral decubitus position to detect this murmur. Cardiomyopathy Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often presents in the 14 18-year-old age range, when it is also most likely to result in sudden death in the athlete, accounting for approximately 40 50% of sudden cardiac death in the teenaged athlete in the United States. Symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, or syncope with exercise. Family history of heart disease or sudden death prior to age 40 should raise index of suspicion. In 25% of patients, there is dynamic left ventricular mid cavity obstruction that results in a systolic ejec- tion murmur that increases in intensity in the standing position. Cardiac auscultation may reveal an S3 4 summation gallop, best heard with the bell at the left lower sternal border or apex. Myocarditis Myocarditis should be suspected in any child with signs of heart failure who was previous well, especially with a preceding history of a viral illness. On cardiac exam there is often unexplained tachycardia and the heart sounds are usually muffled. The presence of ventricular arrhythmias indicates fulminant presentation and should prompt immediate transfer to the intensive care unit for potential cardiopulmonary support. Mehrotra Many newborn children appear to have cardiomegaly when in fact the thymus is contributing to the cardio-thymic shadow giving the appearance of an enlarged heart. Introduction Chest X-ray is an important tool in evaluating heart disease in children. Luxenberg diagnostic procedures is significant making their routine use difficult. History of present illness coupled with physical examination provides the treating physician with a reasonable list of differential diagnoses which can be further focused with the aid of chest X-ray and electrocardiography making it possible to select a management plan or make a decision to refer the child for further evalua- tion and treatment by a specialist. Approach to Chest X-Ray Interpretation Unlike echocardiography, chest X-ray does not provide details of intracardiac structures. Instead the heart appears as a silhouette of overlapping cardiovascular chambers and vessels. The size and shape of the heart as well as the pulmonary vascular markings, pleura and parenchymal lung markings provide helpful information regarding the heart/lung pathology. It is easy to be overwhelmed with a prominent pathology on a chest X-ray thus overlooking more subtle changes; therefore, it is imperative to conduct interpretation of chest X-ray carefully and systematically considering the fol- lowing issues. Heart size: The size of the heart represents all that lies within the pericardial sac. This includes the volume within each cardiac chamber, cardiac wall thickness, pericardial space, and any other additional structure such as mass from a tumor or air trapped within the pericardium (pneumopericardium). Therefore, enlargement of any of these structures will lead to the appearance of cardiomegaly on chest X-ray. Dilated atria or ventricles such as that seen in heart failure will cause the cardiac silhouette to appear large, as would hypertrophy of the ventricular walls or fluid accumulation within the pericardial space (Tables 2. Heart shape: The presence of certain subtleties in the cardiac shape may point to a particular pathology and thus help narrow the differential diagnosis. Enlargement or hypoplasia of a particular component of the heart will alter the normal shape of the cardiac silhouette. Therefore, each aspect of the heart border should be examined to assess for abnormalities. On the other hand, pulmonary atresia will cause the mediastinum to be narrow due to hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery. Pulmonary blood flow: Pulmonary vasculature is normally visible in the hilar region of each lung adjacent to the borders of the cardiac silhouette. An increase in pulmonary blood flow or congestion of the pulmonary veins will cause prominence of the pulmonary blood vessels. A significant increase in pulmonary blood flow 2 Cardiac Interpretation of Pediatric Chest X-Ray 19 Table 2. Pleural space: Heart failure results in venous congestion which may lead to fluid accumulation within the pleural spaces manifesting as a pleural effusion. Pleural effusion may be noted on chest X-ray as a rim of fluid in the outer lung boundaries of the chest cavity or as haziness of the entire lung field in a recumbent patient due to layering of the fluid behind the lungs. The right border of the cardiac silhouette consists of the following structures from top to bottom: superior vena cava, ascending aorta, right atrial appendage, and right atrium (Fig. The left border of the cardiac silhouette is formed from top to bottom by the aortic arch (aortic knob), pulmonary trunk, left atrial appendage, and the left ventricle.
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