By R. Kulak. University of Mary Washington. 2018.
Citation Rules with Examples for Homepages Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference purchase effexor xr 150mg. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional generic 75mg effexor xr overnight delivery. Author (R) | Author Afliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Date of Citation (R) | Availability (R) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Homepages (required) General Rules for Author • List names in the order they appear on the site • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear on the assumption that the author approved the form used. When they do not: • Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the frst screen or the bottom of the last screen of the homepage • Do not assume that an individual named as Web master or contact person is the author; he or she most probably is not, especially for sites produced by large organizations • Do not assume that an individual named in association with a copyright statement, such as "copyright 1997 by John A. In such cases when the organization appears to be serving as both author and publisher, place the organization in the publisher position. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or governmental body may serve as an author. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy), Rebora P, Reina G. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 7. Homepage with author afliation Title for Homepages (required) General Rules for Title • Reproduce the title of a homepage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen, duplicating capitalization, spacing, punctuation, and special characters when possible • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation when possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a space Specific Rules for Title • Determining the title • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character • Titles not in English • Titles in more than one language • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • No title can be found Box 15. When there is no clear title: • Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen • Look at the title bar of the Web browser (generally in the top lef corner) Box 15 continues on next page... Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Societe Francaise de Mycologie Medicale [French Society of Medical Mycology] [Internet]. Occasionally a homepage does not appear to have any title; it simply begins with the text. When this occurs: • Construct a title from the frst few words of the text • Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful • Place the constructed title in square brackets Examples for Title 8. Homepage with title and publisher the same, with publisher name abbreviated Content Type for Homepages (optional) General Rules for Content Type • Use a content type to tell the user the format of the Internet item being cited • Begin type information with a lef square bracket 1776 Citing Medicine • Enter the words "homepage on the" • End content type with space Specific Rules for Content Type • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Titles not in English Box 21. Standard citation to a homepage Edition for Homepages (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the Type of Medium (and Content Type, if present) when a homepage is published in more than one edition or version • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) • Capitalize only the frst word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ŏ becomes o ū becomes u ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Homepage with an edition or version Editor and other Secondary Authors for Homepages (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors • A secondary author modifes the work of the author. If the same secondary author performs more than one role: • List all of them in the order they are given on the Web site • Separate the roles by "and" Box 30 continues on next page... Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications.
The end result is inflammation and well-balanced diet free of immunosuppressive myco- tissue destruction cheap effexor xr 37.5 mg with visa. The Arthus phenomenon and im- toxins is essential for birds that are to be capable of munogenic glomerulonephritis are common examples order effexor xr 37.5mg on-line. In Toivanen, nen: Avian Immunology: Basis and nen, Toivanen: Avian Immunology: mune system: A minimum gene Toivanen: Avian Immunology: Basis Practice Vol I. Dtsch tierärtzl Wschr perimental psittacine beak and ogy: Basis and Practice Vol I. Eur J Immu- enteralen Immunglobulintransfer bei ing of B cells in the bursa of Fab- animal amyloidoses. Many microbes cannot be propagatedin vitro and are present in low numbers in secretions or excretions, making their antemortem detection difficult. Additionally, paired serum samples collected two weeks apart must be tested to demonstrate a four-fold increase in antibody titer. The accurate de- tection of an infection, based on an acute and conva- lescent serum sample, is effective for documenting active infections, but the information is obtained too Branson W. Determina- tion of antibody titers may also be ineffective in detecting subclinical carriers, latently infected ani- mals or slow infections. Nucleic acid amplification and detection technologies will continue to improve and will compensate for many of the problems associated with other diagnos- tic techniques. Every clinician should have a rudi- mentary understanding of the methodologies, appli- cations and problems associated with these test systems. Nucleic acid probe technology is currently being used to detect microorganisms, determine gen- der and detect genetic abnormalities. Specifically de- sensitivity (no false negatives), specificity (no false rived heat-stable polymerases can be used in vitro to positives) and rapid results. When probes, and this new generation of tests most com- the strands are allowed to cool, the individual pletely meets the requirements of an ideal method of strands will rebind (reanneal) to their complemen- detecting and identifying an organism (Figure 6. This probe could be used to detect the presence of this specific polyomavirus genome sequence in infected liver tissue, saliva, urine or in a contami- nated environment (if the nucleic acid from the virus were present in the sample). Each black dot represents a positive test (courtesy of Avian Research Associates). This detection can be accom- plished by incorporating labels (eg, P32, S35, I125, alkaline phosphatase, digoxi- genin, horseradish peroxidase) into the probe. Most commercial probes use alka- line phosphatase, digoxigenin, or horse- radish peroxidase to avoid the manage- me nt pro blems asso ciat ed w ith radioactive isotopes. Bound digoxigenin it is necessary to know where the pathogen is located in the body so that the correct (on the probe) could then be detected by sample can be collected and tested. The white bands present in the cloacal swab samples indicate the presence of polyomavirus nucleic acid. The specific nature of the probe prevents cross-reactions with other patho- gens, imparts specificity and reduces false-negative results. Specificity of Nucleic Acid Probes Nucleic acid probes can be designed to be so specific that they can differentiate be- tween two related organisms that are an- tigenically similar (induce production of similar antibodies) but have differences in nucleic acid sequence that alter the patho- genicity of the organism. As a hypothetical example, two adenoviruses that are an- tigenically similar could occur in a bird population. The three strains have has a different nucleic acid sequence than the virus the nucleic acid sequences: that induces a subclinical infection. For example, a and attached to a membrane, or it can be used to probe could be developed that would detect any E. When compared to antibody staining polyomavirus testing might contain 10 polyomavirus techniques for the identification of pathogens in tis- particles, 300 E. The 10,000,000 synthesized copies con- understanding how infections can be treated or pre- stitute a quantity that can be easily detected. Theoretically, when used in cule makes two, two molecules make four, four mole- combination with pathogen-specific nucleic acid cules make eight). The most im- components for the amplification and detection of portant component of this process is the pathogen- nucleic acid from an organism are the pathogen-spe- specific oligonucleotide primers. To develop a subunit vaccine, the protein from a pathogen that induces a protective immunologic re- sponse in the host must be identified. The nucleic Sample Collection acid sequence (gene) that codes for this protein is then inserted (cloned) into a plasmid of an E. A knowledgeable away from the producing organism and can be used clinician can minimize contamination by practicing as a vaccine. This prevents potential problems associ- expected to reduce the potential for contaminating ated with the conversion of attenuated vaccine the sample. A blood sample properly collected into a strains of a virus into a virulent strain. It also elimi- sterile syringe by venipuncture would be less likely nates the possibility that a vaccinate may be exposed to result in a contaminated sample. Several subunit proteins from the same organism can be combined in a vaccine to increase the immu- nologic response (as is seen with a natural infection) Vaccines without the risk of inducing disease.
Development and field testing of an operational tool for serial recording of the rehabilitation process buy generic effexor xr 75mg on-line. Subjective Well-being: Implications for medical rehabilitation outcomes and models of disablement 75mg effexor xr visa. Level-of-function as an organizing framework for functional assessment applications. Assessment of Participation: Operationalisation in terms of activities and aspirations. Standaardclassificaties voor medische en niet-medische gegevens [Standard classifications for medical and non-medical data] [dissertation]. Quality of life assessment: its integration in rehabilitation care through a model of daily living. In the former, conse- quences at the organ, person and societal level are documented, as well as the influ- ence of environment. In the latter, empha- sis is placed on outcome and quality of life as an integral aspect to clinical audit, along with the increased importance of contract- ing for health care where there is clear ev- idence of the efficacy of such care (2). In both cases ‘outcome’ plays a crucial role and consequently the measurement of out- come has become central to health care policy and practice. The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines outcome as ‘that which comes out of some- thing; visible or practical result, effect or product’ (3). Maintenance of an adequate level of quality of life may be a valid goal for the long term. For the patient admit- ted to hospital after stroke, after overcoming any initial risk to survival, re- covery in cognition, speech and physical function may be important short- term goals. In the medium term, independent living may be a valid goal, or, for younger patients, return to work. All are valid goal-orientated out- comes within their chosen context, and all require measurement. Conse- quently a broad range of ‘outcome measures’ have been developed, some of which involve a clinician or therapist assigning values to specified tasks undertaken by a patient, some where the patient, carer or a proxy fill in a questionnaire. In the original, disease may give rise to impair- ment, defined as ‘any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function’. This may give rise to disability, de- fined as ‘any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being’. Im- pairments directly, or through disability, by interacting with the physical and social environment can lead to handicap, defined as a ‘disadvantage for the given individual... It has been suggested that handicap reflects the circum- stances that people find themselves in as a result of the interaction be- tween impairment and disability, and the broader physical and cultural environment within which people live (7). This is then, for example, further subdivided into Keeping Self Clean, Washing, Dressing, Activities related to excretion, and so on. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Impairment, Activities and Participation. Measures that address impairment and disability have traditionally been referred to as measures of health status (5, 9). In this way it is quite possible to have a patient who, despite high levels of impairment and disability, reports a good QoL, or vice versa. Thus it is important to note that there may be a fundamental difference between a subjective patient-perceived QoL, and the more ‘objective’ measurement of health status. The critical issue is to ask what aspect of the outcome continuum is any intervention expected to affect? It is possible that many facets may be af- fected, for example, pain, fatigue, physical function and work. This may require a choice between different outcome measures, opting for a so- called ‘generic’ questionnaire that has a profile of these facets, or a recog- nition that time and resources need to be committed to the measurement process in order to capture all relevant outcomes. In this context, ceteris paribus, more time can be given to measuring outcome within a research programme than in routine clinical practice, usually because there is ad- ditional funding for the former. Unless there is a precise understanding of the domain [s] to be measured, closely targeted at where the intervention is expected to im- pact, then the choice of measure may be inappropriate, and the measure- ment may be unreliable and off-target, so resulting in all the conse- quences of imprecise measurement. Given a clear notion of what needs to be measured, the next task will be to identify [or if absolutely necessary develop] an appropriate outcome measure. There are two sets of complementary information which help us de- cide about the quality of an outcome measure. Traditional Test Theory provides all the quality parameters that are familiar under the label psy- chometric theory. Psychometrics is concerned with the precision of mea- surement, and expresses this in terms such as reliability and validity (12).
Hunter commented that in the vast majority of cases free T4 and total T4 measurements would not be in conflict cheap 37.5 mg effexor xr. There were two categories of subjects purchase effexor xr 75mg without a prescription, however, for whom this relationship might be disturbed: subjects undergoing physiological adaptation to pregnancy, iodine deficiency etc. None the less, he would not dismiss the utility of free T4 measurements, which had been employed by thyroidologists for many years, even though they had been based on crude, indirect and relatively inaccurate methods — the determinationof fT4 index, for example. It was, of course, precisely to obviate misdiagnosis in such cases that free T4 assays had been introduced. Ekins mentioned in this regard the suggestion of Reed Larsen that brain, depending as it does on T4 in the blood for local conversion to T3, might be “hypothyroid” in circumstances in which the blood T4/T3 ratio was low, in iodine deficiency, for example — while other tissues were “euthyroid”. On the other hand, there was evidence that transplacental T4 and T3 transport was low in late pregnancy. A further question related to the commercially available microencapsulated- Ab technique for free T4 assay. It utilized microspheres containing Ab with bound labelled hormone and apparently made use of changes in the rate of loss of labelled hormone from these with changes in free hormone concentration in the sample. The theoretical basis of the methodology was certain to be complex and the results might well show some dependence on binding protein levels in the samples. It was relevant to record that, whereas many free T4 measurement techniques showed a fall in free T4 level in pregnancy, the microencapsulation technique did not. It was still questionable which of these patterns of behaviour constituted physiological reality. A general immunoassay method for the direct measurement of free ligands in the presence of the associated protein-bound ligands is presented. The method utilizes an antiserum of selected avidity together with a ligand tracer derivative structurally modified to inhibit its binding to endogenous serum (or other biological fluid) proteins yet retains an affinity for the antiserum comparable to that of the natural ligand. Using the measure ment of serum free-thyroxine (F T 4) as an example a full theoretical basis for the free ligand immunoassay has been derived. Under optimized conditions the assay is a direct free ligand assay with dose-response characteristics with 1: 1 mathematical correspondence to classical total-ligand assays. A number of experimental methods have been developed to test the validity of the assay. The free form is believed to be the physiological determinant of hormone status and has thus been widely recognised as of primary interest for direct estimation. Usually, the bound and free forms are in equilibrium, with the free fraction representing only a small part of the total hormone present [1 ,2 ]. However, both T4 and binding protein concentrations can vary independently in serum such that any given free T4 value can arise from a whole spectrum of different combinations of binding protein and T4 levels [2 ,6 ]. Various techniques have been employed to estimate the free T4 fraction by more or less indirect means . The basic problem in devising a valid free T4 assay is the need to combine two apparently incompatible requirements : good discrimination between patient classes, and negligible sampling of the equilibrium system between bound and free hormone, over a wide range of T4 and protein concentrations, whilst maintaining minimal disturbance of the true free T4 concentration. The principle utilises an antiserum of selected avidity together with a ligand tracer derivative structurally modified to inhibit its binding to the endogenous serum binding proteins yet retaining an affinity for the antiserum comparable to that of the natural ligand. Secondly, the application of computer simulation techniques to this theoretical model is reported to illustrate the assay optimisation procedures required for this new assay principle. This diagram shows the inter action of the specific anti-T4-serum (Ab) and the special tracer T4*-X with thyroxine and the serum T4-binding proteins at equilibrium in the assay. X x 4 In the mathematical treatment we have ignored additional minor perturbations that may arise from the effects of T3 binding to the serum proteins, in competition with T4. The derivation of the equations governing T4 binding to the various protein species is based on the multiple ligand/binding site techniques of Feldman . Also: Tx = F2 + t x ” • (5) which, by considerations similar to those above = F Л + KxP5________ ... By solving (6 ) for F , the dose response curve for the system can be described as f(F^, , K^, T^). For a given set of such parameters, the behaviour of the dose response curve of T binding to antiserum is thus correlated with variations in values. Distortions in observed F^ values in the assay from those actually existing in serum prior to assay can be evaluated by comparing solutions of equation (4) where the term K P /[1 + KrF. It is also possible to analyse the biases in F1 (as assayed) that arise from the inclusion of Pg and T , compared with the true values of F^ in their absence. For normal sera in physiological conditions the following values at 37 С were assumed [6 ]. This ensures good sensitivity and maximum discrimination over the range of greatest clinical interest. Using criterion (I) it was found that any deficiencies in avidity of the antiserum for binding tracer T could be overcome by increasing the antiserum concentration. In mathematical terms, optimum slope and zero binding in the assay were found if К P was maintained at a figure of about 1.
10 of 10 - Review by R. Kulak
Votes: 87 votes
Total customer reviews: 87