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Both the potential for improvement and the costs of implementing and maintaining these systems are huge order actoplus met 500 mg overnight delivery. Value Proposition for Implementers and Users Value proposition is determined from a balance of financial order 500 mg actoplus met with amex, clinical, and organizational benefits. A clear assessment of each of these from the viewpoint of each stakeholder is needed to make a clear value judgment. Values will also vary depending on the setting and the type of technology employed. We cite only 31 papers in this section, although some of our assessments come from sections of this report that have included more studies. Authors seldom provided enough details about the technology to form conclusions about the value of feature sets and system characteristics. Sustainability Our literature review revealed three important findings: sustainability is frequently mentioned in the core biomedical informatics literature, it is poorly defined, and none of the articles included in this evidence report explicitly studied sustainability. Future research would be beneficial for many if a study or group would develop an operational definition of sustainability that could be used to study its determinants. We have summarized a body of literature that uses surveys to detect patterns in the characteristics of people and organizations that are more likely to implement various technologies. These surveys are often the basis for further study into barriers and facilitators to increasing uptake and adoption. Some technologies were integrated with a greater number of components than others. Frequently, the descriptions of the systems were inadequate to fully determine how the systems were connected. Evidence from the limited set of one-way, e-Prescribing studies was extrapolated to identify possible key facilitators and barriers to completely electronic, two-way, e-Prescribing systems. While answering this question, we found that the Bell model does not represent the two-way communication between pharmacists and prescribers—it shows only a one-way linear movement of information. It is diffused across multiple disciplines, and much of it is descriptive in nature. The evidence of effectiveness can be made stronger with directed evaluation funding. With direction the evaluations could be encouragement for studies to be done appropriately and not just on small budgets or by the system developers. We noted problems in study methods and often found studies that lacked sufficient numbers for valid statistical analyses and assessment of implications. Evidence Report/Technology Healthcare Research and Quality, November Assessment No. Southern California Evidence-based Practice Available at: Center under Contract No. The Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Delphi list: a criteria list for quality Applications. Evidence Report/Technology assessment of randomized clinical trials for Assessment No. Healthcare Research and Quality, October Technologies to reduce errors in dispensing 2009. Implications for rural health Development of diagnostic reference frames research. Costs and benefits of health information implementation of a hospital based technology: new trends from the literature: integrated order entry system. Proc Annu since 2005, patient-focused applications Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1994:653–7. They have contracted several reports that are published or will soon be published. Currently, approximately 10 percent of the health care budget in the United States is spent on prescription 22 medications. To structure this evidence report we use the framework of medication management as 1 presented by Bell and colleagues. They model the medication management continuum into the five phases of this evidence report; Figure 1 is a pictorial representation of the medication 1 management phases. The first phase of the continuum is prescribing medications by clinicians who have assessed the patients’ conditions and needs. The second phase is to transmit the prescription to the pharmacists who work with the prescriber to clarify and verify the order (referred to as ‘order communication’ in this report to capture the complexity of the communication that occurs between prescriber and pharmacy). The next step is dispensing the medication in its required form and dose, followed by administering the medications to the patient. Monitoring is the final phase where ongoing oversight occurs to address the changing medication needs and situation of the individual.
It is implied in both extracts that making such comparisons will facilitate consumers to make the association between medication adherence and stability cheap actoplus met 500 mg amex, and that this will order actoplus met 500 mg without prescription, in turn, motivate them to remain adherent. Both interviewees could be seen, thereby, to indirectly frame past experiences of non-adherence as important to reinforce future adherence, as they highlight the benefits of taking medication. In the second extract, Ryan also emphasizes the subjectivity of adherence choices, by stating that “the person who takes the medication has to do their own bit of diagnosing” in response to being asked about interventions. By diagnosing, Ryan seems to be referring to a process whereby the consumer makes the decision as to whether they need medication based on an appraisal of their experiences on and off medication. Interventions from external sources are, thus, implicitly constructed as less effective by Ryan, through his representation of adherence as a personal choice, influenced by personal experiences. Similar to the previous extracts, the below extracts more directly emphasise the importance of non-adherence experiences in assisting with future adherence. Oliver, 21/08/2008 L: And um, how do you think some of these, what could we do to get this across, do you think just tell people this, give people this sort of information? O: Yeah, well, what you should, if they don’t think they need it, you should say, alright then, don’t take it and then when they’re, something happens, goes wrong, use that as an example, like if they start hearing voices and that again, put ‘em on their medication and wait until they’re better and the next time they feel that they don’t need medication just bring back the time 128 when they did go off it and started falling in the dumps and all that and hearing voices and all that and bring that all up, say you do need it, this is what happens, it’s happened to you in the past, so you take it. I had a brother who was a doctor and he’d tell me how important it was that I stayed on them and in the end I decided not to. In both of these extracts non-adherence experiences are constructed as important influences on future adherence, as interviewees indicate that consumers can learn the association between adherence and stability by drawing on these experiences. Like the previous extracts, it is suggested that mere instruction to take medication, even in conjunction with information about the risks of non-adherence, is ineffective in assisting with adherence. Thomas summarises this position through the statement, “I think maybe you just have to learn the hard way”, framing adherence as something which is learned via a trial and error process. Thomas states that only once a consumer has experienced non-adherence and relapsed, can health workers then have a role in reminding consumers of this experience to assist with motivation for adherence. The following extract uses a metaphor to describe the learning process involved in adherence: 129 Travis, 19/02/2009 T: But everyone has to, at some stage, work this out for themselves, with a mental illness. It’s just like, you’re at uni, you can’t expect to go to uni for 6 months and then graduate, you’ve gotta go through it, you know what I mean? The above extract took place in the context of Travis talking about how consumers can be made aware of the importance of medication adherence. Travis constructs adherence as a process which is personal and involves learning from experiences (“everyone has to, at some stage, work this out for themselves, with a mental illness. They have to work it out and they have to start learning this stuff to progress”). Travis could be seen to imply that the process of becoming adherent cannot be hastened by outside intervention, but rather, is a natural, learning process which evolves with time; he uses the metaphor of university education to illustrate this. Specifically, through the metaphor of expecting an individual to graduate after a short period of time, Travis could be seen to highlight the irrationality of expecting consumers to be adherent immediately. He could additionally be interpreted to suggest that the process of learning about the need for medication is associated with experiences (“you’ve gotta go through it”). The following extracts strongly emphasise the subjectivity of experiences of mental illness and with medication, which contraindicate the effectiveness of general interventions: Cassie, 04/02/2009 C: Um, no that’s what the individual’s gotta learn for themselves. You might be able to help them with a case manager or someone that and get 130 someone to talk to them, get them to become compliant earlier, but they’ve gotta learn it themselves, that that’s what they want. Matthew, 18/02/2009 L: What would be some strategies then, how could we encourage people to stay on their medication then? L: Yep, heaps of people have been saying that, like it’s kind of an individual thing. Ross, 14/08/2008 L: Um, can you think of any strategies that could be useful to pass on to I guess, people with schizophrenia who are having some difficulty with, you know, taking their medication, or who, who might stop or not take their medication? R: Um, uh, um, um (five second pause) just think that take, if you don’t take them, um, like in my case, uh, uh (five second pause) it’s hard because every person’s different, with their own medication, so it’s hard to know what to really say to them you know? Coz, with schizophrenia, there are different side effects you know, affects you in different ways, so it’s a bit hard to know what to say to people that have got, that have got schizophrenia and have stopped taking medication. L: So you reckon maybe the best thing would be to sort of individualise things maybe. George, 14/08/2008 L: But if you were, based on your experiences with medication, if you were to try and like help other people or to encourage other people to take it, what sorts of things would you maybe say to them? G: Oh, you can’t say nothing because everyone’s got their own way of dealing with things. All depends on if they like, you know, their schiz illness, or if they hate it, or if they’re disgusted with it you know? Of note, the interviewer’s questioning about interventions to assist with adherence in the above extracts is value-laden, in that it is assumed that adherence is always positive and something to be strived for, whereas non- adherence is the opposite.
The elements of client singularity represent a holistic view of the client‘s internal and external self buy actoplus met 500mg cheap. Without an assessment of these elements cheap 500mg actoplus met otc, health care providers literally operate without the essential knowledge necessary to establish therapeutic relationships and successfully evaluate client behavioral and health outcomes. Thus, research including background and dynamic variables are essential in explaining health behaviors and could be strong determinants of heath behaviors, such as medication adherence, and subsequent health outcomes. The health outcome is a reflection of the client‘s behavior and results in either positive or negative health outcomes. According to Cox (2003), adherence describes the extent to which a client engages in behaviors or treatments necessary for optimal health outcomes. Although many variables may contribute to a client‘s health care outcome, 82 Cox and Wachs (1985) state that it is not the contributing variables, but the client‘s free choice, that impact health outcomes. During the initial clinic visit, a chart review and physical examination were conducted. To foster follow-up appointments, only enough medication was dispensed to last to the next appointment, thus free medication was contingent on appointment keeping. Although appointment keeping was high (83%), those who missed appointments were telephoned the next day and scheduled for the next clinic. The results of this study prompted health care providers at this clinic to establish broader free-medication programs for other chronic illnesses. Although this study did not have a control group for comparison, it provides strong evidence that a multidisciplinary, multifaceted approach to successful medication adherence may be warranted. Although appointment-keeping may be used as a signal of medication adherence, the study results were not significant, thus concluding that medication adherence should not be equated with appointment-keeping. One reason why study participants did not keep appointments 84 could relate to the high unemployment rates in the majority of participants (77%) that may have resulted in an inability to afford transportation. Of the participants who missed scheduled appointments, one-third continued to take their medications according to participant self-report which may be indicative of an overestimation of adherence. However, access to health care, health 85 behaviors (smoking, alcohol, diet, overweight/obesity, and inactivity), lack of social support, knowledge, and clinical management may influence adherence behaviors (Fiscella & Holt, 2008; Fongwa et al. Interestingly, Munger, Tassell, and LaFleur (2007) contend that medication nonadherence could be recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor. Research presented at the 2008 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions suggests that caring behaviors of health care providers influence adherence to prescribed treatment and therapy. This study was effective in helping clients to affirm positive feelings while reducing negativity surrounding their health through self-affirmation and the caring phone calls of health care providers. Because heart disease is the leading cause of death for women > 65 years of age (Roger et al. However, these qualitative studies do shed light on the many reasons for nonadherence to the prescribed treatment regimen, such as low income, lack of health insurance, low educational level, perceived racism, and lack of trust in the health care provider. The primary reason for qualitative research is to listen to those who ―may be in despair, who may have given up, 87 or who do not have access‖ (Munhall, 2007, p. Further, qualitative studies solicit the attention of health care providers, researchers, and policy makers to hear the cry of individuals who want to tell their story and give understanding to their world by ―revealing what had been concealed‖ (Munhall, 2007, p. The interplay of these variables provide 88 understanding and insight into the processes necessary for development of appropriate nursing and other discipline specific interventions (Cox, 1986). Included is a description of the research design, setting, sample, protection of human subjects, instruments, procedures, and the plan for data analysis. Design A cross-sectional, correlational design was used for this non-experimental research study. In a cross-sectional design, data are measured on one occasion with the goal of describing variables or examining associations among variables (Newman, Browner, Cummings, & Hulley, 2007). For instance, a cross-sectional design allows the collection of all measurements from participants at one time point to describe their health status and examine pertinent issues that may influence medication adherence. Because this study does not examine changes in medication adherence over time, a cross-sectional design was deemed appropriate. With correlational design, this study examined the relationship or association between variables that are not manipulated (Gliner & Morgan, 2000; Vogt, 2005). Setting Participants were recruited from various settings with a majority of Black members or clients, such as churches, hair salons, and community events in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Using a variety of settings assisted in obtaining an adequate and heterogeneous sample of adult Black women ages 18-60 who are taking antihypertensive medications. Sample A non-probability convenience sample of community dwelling Black women were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria included self-report of: (a) mental illness that interferes with daily functioning, (b) current pregnancy, and (c) concurrent participation in another research study. Recruitment methods included flyers (see Appendix A) posted on bulletin boards, publicized at meetings, distributed directly to potential participants, and circulated to targeted community members or leaders in various Black churches, businesses such as hair salons, and community events. Follow-up telephone calls and face-to-face meetings 91 with business owners, pastors and community leaders occurred as needed to aid recruitment efforts (Ellish, Scott, Royak-Schaler, & Higginbotham, 2009; Watson & Torgerson, 2006).
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